Black Hole

Credit: Getty Images

Black Hole wani wuri ne a sararin samaniya da ke da tsananin ƙarfin maganaɗiso, wanda yake iya laƙume duk wani abu da ya kusance shi. Masana kimiyya suka ce haske ma ba ya tsira a wannan wuri. Black Hole yana da tsananin girma da faɗi. Da yake Black Hole suna da yawa a fadin kaunu, amma mafi girma da aka gano shi ne wanda ya ninka rana sau biliyan 66 a nauyi.

Game da samuwar Black Hole, akwai hanyoyi da dama da yake samar da kansa. Sai dai mafi yawa daga cikin waɗanda suka samu shi ne a duk lokacin da wani bijimin tauraro ya mutu. A lokacin da bijimin tauraton ya mutu zai yi wata fashewa da ake kira Supernova, wanda daga nan ne tiririn wannan fashewar da birbiɗin tauraron da ya mutu zai haɗu ya samar da Black Hole.

Wasu Abubuwa Dangane da Black Hole

  • Wasu masana suka ce Black Hole kan iya zama maƙabartar taurari, domin da zaran tauraro ya mutu birbiɗinsa zai fara shawagi a sararin samaniya a inda kuma da zaran ya kusanci black hole zai laƙume shi.
  • Black Hole yana ƙara girma a duk lokacin da yake laƙume wasu abubuwa, har ƙananan black holes ba ya bari.
  • Masana suka ce duk abunda ya faɗa cikin Black Hole zai markaɗe ne kamar yadda zirin taliya yake, wannan lamari shi ake kira Spaghettification
  • Singularity shi ne cikin black hole inda duk nauyinsa ya taru. Duk wani abunda ya wuce bakin black hole har ya shigo singularity ba zai iya tserewa ba, hatta haske.
  • Event Horizon shi ne ke kusa da bakin black hole. Da zaran abu ya gangaro event horizon to lamarinsa ya zo ƙarshe domin daga wannan wuri ya rasa duk wani kuzari kenan.
M87 shi ne Black Hole na farko da aka fara daukar hotonsa. Photo Credit: Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration

Tarihin Blackhole

A shekarar 1783 masanin kimiyya John Mitchell ya hasasho cewa akwai yiwuwar kasantuwar wani abu mai girma kuma mai nauyi, da matuƙar ana so a tsere masa to ana buƙatar ayi gudu kamar gudun haske. Nauyin nashi zai ta’allaka da ƙarfin maganaɗisonsa.

A lokacin masana da dama ba su gamsu da wannan hasashen ba, sai a shekarar 1915 da masani Albert Einstein ya gabatar da nazariyyarsata Relativity wacce ta fayyace yiwuwar wannan hasashe.

Daga wancen lokacin har zuwa yanzu masana sun duƙufa wajen binciken black hole da zubin halittarsa. A shekarar 2019 aka ɗauko hoton Black Hole na farko a tarihin duniya.

Iren-iren black hole

Black Holes suna da yawa a faɗin ƙaunu. Kusan kowane gungun taurari akwai su, kuma akwai wanda yake kasance bijimi daga cikinsu. Don haka suna da yawa manya da ƙananansu.

  • Supermassive Black Holes – waɗannan su ake ƙira bijiman Black Holes. Masana suka ce yawancin irin waɗannan bijiman black holes ɗin sun samu ne miliyoyin shekaru kaɗan bayan samuwar ƙaunu. Don haka suna da dogon tarihi, kuma sirrin girmansu shi ne laƙume sauran ƙananan Black Holes ɗin da ke kusa da su.
  • Intermediate-mass Black Holes – waɗannan kuma ba su kai bijiman girma ko nauyi sosai ba, amma sun kasance masu matsakaicin girma su ma.
  • Stellar Black Holes – a rukuni na uku na girma da nauyin Black Holes sai Stellar. Irin waɗannan Black Holes din suna samuwa ne a lokacin da tauraro yake fitar da haskensa wanda hakan ke yin sanadin rasa sinadarin jigon rayuwarsa. Da zaran ya yi fashewar da ake ƙira supernova sai birbiɗinsa, da ƙarfin maganaɗison da hakan zai haifar su haɗu su samar da Stellar Black Hole. Irin waɗannan Black Holes din su suka fi yawa a faɗin ƙaunu.

Wasu Manyan Black Holes

  • Sagittarius A* – wannan shine bijimin black hole mafi girma da nauyi a gungun taurari Milky Way
  • M87 – wannan Black Hole din ya ninka rana sau biliyan 3.5 a nauyi. shi ne Black Hole na farko da aka fara ɗaukar hotonsa a shekarar 2019
  • S5 0014+81 – shi ne mafi nauyin Black Hole da aka gano, wanda ya ninka rana sau biliyan 41 a nauyi.

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[1] Astronomy > Black Hole > References