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Daga Ina Sinadaran Da Ake Ƙira Heavy Elements Suka Samo Asali?

Masana kimiyya sun sha kai-kawo wajen binciko asalin sinadaran da ake ƙira heavy elements waɗanda sune suke taimakawa rayuwa ta wanzu. Dukkan wani sinadarin da ya ƙunshi adadin ƙwayoyi (atomic number) fiye da 92 su ake ƙira heavy elements.

A shekarar 1957 masanin kimiyyar sararin samaniya Fred Hoyle ya gabatar da nazarinsa a kan yanda su waɗannan sinadaran su ke faruwa. A cewarsa, waɗannan sinadarai suna samuwa ne a lokacin da tauraro ya yi tumbatsar da zai iya fashewa, har ya samar da tsananin zafin da ake buƙata domin samuwar waɗannan sinadaran. Wannan tauraro da ya tarwatse shi ake kira Supernova a kimiyyance.

Kalmar Supernova ta samo asali ne a cikin shekarun 1930s daga bakin masanin kimiyyar Astrophysics mai suna Fritz Zwicky. Supernova tana faruwa ne a lokacin da wani bijimin tauraro ya cika ya tumbutsa har ta kai ga ya tarwatse. Bincike ya nuna cewa Supernova tana faruwa ne a lokacin da ɗayan abubuwa guda biyu suka faru:

  • Na farko a inda aka samu tagwayen taurari da ake ƙira binary star system waɗanda suke zagayen muhalli ɗaya, tauraron da ake ƙira white dwarf daga cikin taurarin guda biyu ya kan rinjayi abokin tagwaicinsa, har ta kai ga ya haɗiɗiye sassanshi, hakan zai sa ya yi cikar da za ta sa ya tumbatsa har ya fashe ya za ma Supernova.
  • Na biyu yana faruwa ne a lokacin da tauraro yazo karshen rayuwarsa, ya gama kona makamashinsa na nuclear, dukkan nauyinsa yakan tattaru ya koma tsakiyarsa (core). Hakan yakan sa ya rinjayi kansa har ya tumbatsa ya tarwatse ya zama Supernova.

Bincike ya nuna afkuwar Big Bang, ya samar da sinadaran da ake ƙira light elements ne kawai waɗanda suka ƙunshi sinadarin hydrogen da helium, da kuma ɓirɓishin sinadaran lithium da beryllium. Waɗannan sinadarai su suka haɗu suka zama taurari kamar rana.

Yanda tauraro yake rayuwa shi ne, sinadaran hydrogen suna curewa (fuse) a sakiyar (core) tauraro su haifar da sinadarin helium, kamar misali sinadaran hygrogen guda biyu (two atoms of hydrogen) suna haɗuwa su haifar da sinadarin helium – 4. Wannan shi yake samar da kaso 85 na ƙarfin tauraro kamar rana.

Sai dai shi wannan sinadari na hydrogen ba abu ba ne da yake wanzuwa har abada. A lokacin da tauraro ya ƙarar da shi wannan sinadarin to rayuwarshi ta zo ƙarshe kenan, sai ya fara girma yana faɗaɗa, inda zai zama abinda masana suke ƙira bijimin jan kasko wato red giant. Hakan yakan sa tauraron ya riƙa mayar da ƙwayoyin sinadarin helium zuwa ƙwayoyin sinadarin carbon. Wannan ya sa masana suka yi hasashen nan da wasu shekaru rana za ta zama red giant, a lokacin babu wani abu da zai iya rayuwa a bisa doron duniyar Earth, kai hatta ruwa za a nemesa a rasa, ya ƙone.

Taurarin da suke da girma sosai a lokacin da suka kai wannan matakin suna tsallakawa zuwa matakin da zasu fara haifar da abinda ake cewa nuclear reaction. Misali a wannan lokacin ƙwayoyin sinadarin helium guda ukku suna haɗuwa su samar da ƙwayayoyin carbon, sannan ƙwayoyin carbon su kuma su sake haɗuwa da ƙwayoyin helium su samar da ƙwayoyin oxygen, su kuma ƙwayoyin oxygen idan suka haɗu da na helium za su samar da ƙwayoyin neon wanda za su sake haɗuwa da ƙwayayoyin helium su samar da na magnesium.   

Da zaran wannan tauraro ya gama tumbatsar da zai fashe har ya zama Supernova, zai saki ƙarfi (energy) sosai har ta kai ga ya haifar da wasu sinadaran wanda suka fi na iron nauyi, kamar uranium da gold. Da zaran ya tarwatse ya zama Supernova zai warwatsa waɗannan sinadarai da ya haifar zuwa sassa na sararin samaniya.

Wani abun al’ajabi a nan shi ne, shi wannan fasasshen tauraro na Supernova, duk da yana ƙunshe da sinadaran da rayuwa take buƙata, idan har ya faru kusa da duniyar da muke rayuwa a cikinta yanzu wato Earth, duk abinda ke bayanta zai hallaka shi. Akwai garkuwa da duniyar Earth take da ita wacce ake kira Magnetosphere, ita take tare tartsatsin rana daga illatar da duk abinda ke rayuwa a doron ƙasa. Da ace Supernova za ta faru, za ta yi raga-raga da wannan garkuwan, hakan zai sa duk wani abu da ke rayuwa a doron ƙasa zai zama ya soye murus!!!  

Sai dai mu godewa Mahaliccin sammai da ƙassai, babu wani tauraron da ke kusa damu da zai iya zama Supernova har ya kai ga ya illatamu. Kafin tauraro ya zama sai ya kai girman da ya linka na rana sau goma zuwa ashirin. Tauraro mafi kusa da mu da yake da wannan girman shi ne tauraron Betelgeuse, wanda nisanshi ya kai tafiyar haske shekara dubu hamsin. Kafin Supernova ta iya illata mu sai ya kasance nisanmu da tauraron da ya haifar da ita aƙalla ya kai tafiyar haske shekara goma.  Tauraro mafi kusa da mu shi ne tauraron Alpha Centauri wanda nisanshi ya kai tafiyar haske shekara hudu da wata ukku. Amma shi ma wannan tauraron girmanshi bai kai ya zama Supernova ba har ya iya illatamu.

Abdulrahman Ibrahim Tahir

Abdulrahman Ibrahim Tahir

Abdulrahman Ibrahim Tahir is a Sociologist from Katsina State of Nigeria, who is interested in understanding the Universe and all its mesmerizing wonders. He hold the credence that the Universe although seemingly mysterious is here for a reason and it is consistently sending coded information our way in the form of cosmic panorama, all we have to do is decode and give meaning to it as we meander through the cosmos.

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