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Tarihin Samuwar Ƙaunu (Universe) A Kimiyyance (2)

Game da samuwar ƙaunu  wato universe a kimiyyance.

Karanta: Tarihin Samuwar Ƙaunu (Universe) A Kimiyyance (1)

A shekarar 1842, masani Christian Doppler ya gabatar da wata nazariyya mai suna Redshift. Wannan nazariyyar ta yi nuni da cewar launin ja (red) da tauraro mai nisa yake fitarwa ya ta’allaƙa ne ga motsi (motion) na tauraron ba zafin shi ba (temperature) a lokacin da yake ƙara nisantar duniyar Earth.

Wannan ya sa duk lokacin da wani abu ya nisanci duniyar Earth launin kalarsa tana bayyana a matsayin ja (red) ko da kuwa kalarsa ta asali ba ja ɗin ba ce. Wannan yana faruwa ne sakamakon tsayin ziri (wavelength) na hasken abinda ke nisantar duniyar Earth, wanda yana ƙara gudu ƙarfin launin ja ɗin yana ƙaruwa. Ta haka ne masana suka lura cewa ƙaunu kullum ƙara faɗaɗa take cikin sauri kasancewar gungun taurari (galaxies)masu nisa da duniyar Earth suna ƙara nisantar juna.

Karanta: Ina ne Bangon Duniya?

Kamar misali mai karatu ya samu balan–balan (balloon) wacce akwai zanen ɗigagga a jikinta, sai ya fara hura ta, zai lura cewa tana ƙara girma wannan ɗigaggan suna ƙara girma kuma suna nisantar junansu ta kowane ɓangare.

Balloon

Duba da wannan nazariyyar ne, Georges Lemaitre wanda ya kasance wani limamin majami’ar ƙasar Belgia, a shekarar 1927 ya gabatar da cewa matuƙar dai ƙaunu faɗaɗa take ƙara yi cikin sauri kuma zafinta raguwa yake tana ƙara sanyaya, to kuwa za a iya bin diddigin daga tushen inda ta faro wannan faɗaɗar wanda zai iya kasancewa tun asali a haɗe take waje ɗaya a matsayin tilo, kamar dai balan–balan kafin a fara hura ta. Sai dai wannan hasashen na shi bai samu karɓuwa ba har zuwa shekarar 1964.

Karanta: Gungume Uku Gagara Dauri: Menene Blackhole, Whitehole da Wormhole?

A wannan shekarar wasu masanan kimiyyar ilimin taurari suka yi dacen gano wani abu ba tare da saninsu ba. Su waɗannan masana masu suna Arno Penzian da Robert Wilson, sun kasance suna ƙoƙarin su yi amfani da wata na’urar sadarwa mallakar Bell Laboratories ta Holmdel wacce take New Jersey, sai dai ƙoƙarin su ya ci tura saboda wata ƙara irin wacce idan aka kunna radiyo kafin a samu wata tashar sauraro ake ji. Sun shafe kusan shekara guda suna ƙoƙarin kawar da wannan ƙarar, amma sun kasa. Anan ne suka nemi taimakon wani masani mai suna Robert Dicke da yake jami’ar Princeton.

Abun mamaki tun a shekarar 1940 jami’ar Princeton suke ƙoƙarin gano wannan ƙarar, saboda nazarin da masani George Gamow ya yi na cewa idan aka yi nutso da binciken ƙwaƙwaf a sararin samaniya tabbas za a samu tartsasin da Big Bang ya bari.

Lokacin da waɗannan matasa suka labartawa masani Robert Dicke abinda ya shige musu duhu, sai ya fahimci lallai abinda suka ɗaɗe suna nema ne waɗannan matasa suka gano ba tare da sun sani ba. Wato ita wannan ƙara da waɗannan matasa suke ji wani tartsatsin haske da ake kira photon ne ya haifar da ita. Ita ƙarar da suka ji raguwar tartsatsin photon ɗin farkon ƙaunu ne a lokacin da Big Bang ya faru, saboda daɗewar da ya yi da kuma nisan tafiyar da ya yi kafin ya iso duniyar Earth ya sa ya zama wani ɗan ƙaramin ziri (microwave).

Har yau idan mai karatu ya kunna akwatin talabijin ɗin sa, wannan tsabbi–tsabbin da ya ke gani kafin hoto ya bayyana, kaso ɗaya cikin ɗari raguwar photons ɗin da suka samo asali tun daga faruwar Big Bang ne – ma’ana samuwar ƙaunu ce mai karatu ya ke kallo a tsabbi–tsabbin talabijin ɗin shi kafin hoto ya bayyana.

Wannan photons da waɗannan matasa suka ci karo da su, masana sun yi nazarinsu sai suka ga cewa babu wani ƙarfi a tare da su kuma zafin su ya ragu sosai, ga shi har sun koma wani ɗan ƙaramin ziri na rediyo (radio microwaves). Hakan ya nuna lallai waɗannan photons sun samo asali ne daga Big Bang, domin babu wani bayani da zai fayyace al’amarin su a kimiyyance fiye da wannan.

Mai karatu ya lura kada ya ji an ce Big Bang ya hararo wata irin ƙara ko fashewa babba ce ta afku, ba haka abin yake ba. Asali ma shi sunan Big Bang ya samu ne a lokacin da Fred Hoyle yake ƙalubalantar nazariyyar a shekarar 1949 sai ya kira ta da sunan cikin wargi da izgili, tunda a wurinshi nazariyyar kuskure ce. Daga nan ne sauran masana suka fara kiranta da wannan sunan.

Idan mai karatu bai manta ba, mun ce a lokacin da Big Bang ya faru, ya samar da sinadarai ne marasa nauyi irinsu helium, hydrogen da lithium. Masani Bill Bryson a cikin littafinsa A Short History of Nearly Everything ya ankarar cewa waɗannan sinadarai ba su da tasiri wajen samuwar rayuwa kamar halittar Ɗan-Adam. Ke nan su waɗannan sinadarai suna tasiri ne wajen samuwar taurari kamar rana.

Kafin halitta irin Ɗan-Adam ta samu ana buƙatar sinadarai masu nauyi kamar oxygen, iron, carbon, nitrogen da sauran ire–irensu, amma kuma babu kwatankwacin ƙwayar zarra na waɗannan sinadarai da Big Bang ya samar, duk da haka ga shi muna rayuwa. Kafin waɗannan sinadarai su iya samuwa akwai buƙatar a samu ƙarfin zafi (heat) da kuma kuzari (energy) kwatankwacin na Big Bang, amma kuma sau ɗaya Big Bang ya faru, kuma bai samar da waɗannan sinadarai ba a lokacin da ya faru, shin daga ina suke?

Abdulrahman Ibrahim Tahir

Abdulrahman Ibrahim Tahir

Abdulrahman Ibrahim Tahir is a Sociologist from Katsina State of Nigeria, who is interested in understanding the Universe and all its mesmerizing wonders. He hold the credence that the Universe although seemingly mysterious is here for a reason and it is consistently sending coded information our way in the form of cosmic panorama, all we have to do is decode and give meaning to it as we meander through the cosmos.

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