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Tarihin Samuwar Ƙaunu (Universe) A Kimiyyance (1)

Dukkan wani abu da ake da buƙatar a fahimce shi, sanin tarihin asalin samuwarshi yana da matukar muhimmanci. Fahimtar tsarin gudanawar ƙaunu (universe) ba ya yiwuwa idan ba a fahimci ita kanta ƙaunu daga ina ta fara ba.

Sai dai sanin hakan abu ne mai matuƙar wahala idan aka ce za a yi shi a kimiyyance. Kimiyya tana amfani da hujjoji na gani da ido ko waɗanda za a iya nazarinsu kafin ta tabbatar da wani abu.

Karanta: Yadda Wani Matafiyin Sararin Samaniya Ya Yi ‘Time Travel’

Masana a zamani daban–daban sun sha kai kawo a kan asalin samuwar ƙaunu wato universe a kimiyyance. Sai dai inda gizo ke saƙar shi ne, bincike a kan ƙaunu ba kamar bincike ba ne a kan wata al’umma ko ƙabila. Abin lura a nan, dukkan abinda muke ƙira ƙaunu to iya abinda muke iya ganinshi ne, shi ya sa ma masana suke ƙiran ƙaunu da ‘observable universe’ – ma’ana ƙaunu wacce ake iya nazarinta. Wannan ya sa binciken kimiyya ya kan canja lokaci zuwa lokaci a duk lokacin da wani abu ya bayyana wanda da ba a iya gano shi ba.

Masani Lawrence M. Krauss a littafinsa mai suna Universe from Nothing wanda aka wallafa a shekarar 2012, ya tafi a kan cewa ƙaunu ta fara ne daga ‘tilo’ (singularity). Misali mai karatu ya ƙaddara da zai iya ɗaukar wani ɓangare na ƙwayar zarra (atom) da ake kira proton – wanda a zahiri hakan ba ya yiwuwa saboda ƙanƙantarshi ba ta misaltuwa –idan muka zana harafin ‘i’ to wannan ɗan ɗigon da yake samanshi zai iya ɗaukar mafi ƙaranci protons 500,000,000,000, kamar yanda masani Bill Bryson ya misalta.

Mai karatu ya ƙaddara zai iya ɗaukar wannan proton ɗin ƙwara ɗaya ya matse shi zuwa wani sarari wanda yayi ƙasa da kaso biliyan na asalin girmanshi. Sai ya tattaro dukkan wani al’amari (matter) tun daga farkon ƙaunu har zuwa ƙarshenta ya matse shi cikin wannan ɗan ƙaramin proton har ya zama cewa ba ya da wani girma ko fuska (dimension) – to wannan shi ake kira ‘tilo’ wato singularity.

Karanta: Yaya Yanayin Girman Ƙaunu Yake?

A ɗabi’ance mai karatu zai iya hararo wannan tilo a matsayin wani ɗigo ko abinda ya yi kama da hakan, sai dai ba haka abun yake ba, domin a lokacin da wannan tilo yake babu sarari babu duhu tunda duk suna tattare a cikinshi ne.

A kimiyyance babu wanda zai iya tabbatar daga ina wannan tilo yake ko tsawon wane lokaci ya kwashe a haka – shin akwai lokaci ma a wannan yanayin na tilo ko sai bayan da ƙaunu ta samu lokaci ya zo?

Kwatsam! Cikin ƙanƙanin lokaci da ba ya misaltuwa wannan tilo ɗin da yake cikin tsananin zafi da tumbatsa sai ya fara faɗaɗa cikin sauri yana girma yana samar da sararin da ba ya misaltuwa. A cikin daƙiƙar farko, ya samar da ƙarfin gudanarwar ƙaunu guda huɗu waɗanda suka haɗa da:

  • Gravity Force: Ƙarfin Fizga
  • Electromagnetic Force: Ƙarfin Maganaɗiso
  • Strong Force: Ƙarfaffan Ƙarfi
  • Weak Force: Raunannan Ƙarfi

A cikin abinda ya yi Ƙasa da minti ɗaya, ƙaunu ta yi faɗaɗar da takai mil miliyan biliyan (1,000,000,000,000,000 miles), wanda faɗaɗar take wanzuwa cikin sauri matuƙa. A wannan lokacin ƙaunu ta kasance cikin tsananin zafin da ya kai digiri biliyan goma (10,000,000,000^⁰) na ma’aunin zafi. Wannan ya haifar da samuwar sinadarai marassa nauyi kamar hydrogen, helium da lithium. A cikin mintuna uku na faruwar wannan al’amari, kaso 98 na dukkan abubuwan da ƙaunu ta ƙunsa (matter) ya samu.

Faruwar wannan al’amari shekaru biliyan 13.7 a hasashe mafi karɓuwa a yanzu, shi ne masana suke kira Big Bang. Sai dai har yau babu wani masani da zai iya tabbatar da mene ne dalilin faɗaɗa da wannan tilo ya yi har ƙaunu ta samu. Wataƙila mai karatu zai yi tambayar to su masana kimiyya ya aka yi suka san da hakan kuma mene ne madogararsu?

Abdulrahman Ibrahim Tahir

Abdulrahman Ibrahim Tahir

Abdulrahman Ibrahim Tahir is a Sociologist from Katsina State of Nigeria, who is interested in understanding the Universe and all its mesmerizing wonders. He hold the credence that the Universe although seemingly mysterious is here for a reason and it is consistently sending coded information our way in the form of cosmic panorama, all we have to do is decode and give meaning to it as we meander through the cosmos.

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