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Bayani A Kan Farantan Duniya – ‘Tectonic Plates’

Bayani A Kan Farantan Duniya – ‘Tectonic Plates’

Masana kimiyyar nazarin cikin ƙarƙashin kasa –Geologists sun tabbatar da samuwar farantan ƙarƙashin ƙasa guda bakwai waɗanda su ke ɗauke da duk kan doron kasa na nahiyoyi da na tekun da mu ke dasu kamar haka:

  1. African Plate
  2. Indo-Australian Plate
  3. Eurasian Plate
  4. North American Plate
  5. South American Plate
  6. Antarctic Plate
  7. Pacific Plate

Waɗannan su ne manyan farantai guda bakwai da dukkan wani tsandauri na ƙasa da na ruwa wato teku ya daidaitu akan su.

Sannan akwai wasu farantan da suka kasance sakamakon cigaba da samuwar nahiyoyi –continental drift, kamar su; Arabian Plate, Hawaiian Plate, Cocos Plate, Nazca Plate, da sauransu.

Duk da haka, akwai wani motsi da waɗannan farantai ke yi, wanda ya kasu zuwa gida uku kamar haka:

1. Convergent Plate

Irin waɗannan iyakar farantan suna kasancewa ne a inda aka samu mabambantan farantan ƙarƙashin ƙasa suke ƙoƙarin haɗewa wuri guda a wata iyaka da ake ƙira Subduction a turance, ma’ana za su saɓa ta yadda za su zama ɗaya akan ɗaya.

Duk da wannan motsin yana faruwa a hankali-hankali, irin wannan iyaka an fi samun ta a inda ake yawan samun aman wuta na duwatsu da suke daskarewa bayan wani lokaci su samar da tsaunuka. Sannan a irin wannan wurare aka fi samun afkuwar girgizar ƙasa.

Misali mai sauƙin fahimta shi ne idan aka samu iyakar da ke tsakanin tekun Pacific da nahiyar South America ana yi masa laƙabi da Peru-Chile Subduction, wanda yanzu haka masana masu binciken ƙarƙashin ƙasa da na teku sun tabbatar da wannan al’amari yana ci gaba da aukuwa.

Haka nan misali na biyu da zai sa mu fahimci iyakar da ke shiga tsakanin farantan doron ƙasa shi ne yadda ƙaramar nahiya ta India ta ɓangare daga jikin Africa ta matsa zuwa jikin uwar nahiyar Eurasia wanda wannan iyakar farantan ya haddasa samuwar tsaunukan Himalayas. Sannan shi ma binciken masana ya tabbatar da cewa duk bayan wasu shekaru ƙaramar nahiyar India tana ƙara matsewa da nahiyar Asia wato Eurasia duba da yadda wasu abubuwan ban al’ajabi suke aukuwa kamar igiyar ruwa da ta samo asali daga teku da girgizar ƙasa da yake yawan faruwa a wannan wuraren.

Baya haka kuma sashi mafi zurfi a cikin teku ya kasance ne sakamakon irin wannan haɗuwa ta farantai da ake samun wannan wuri ana ƙiransa Mariana Trench, ta yadda sashin tekun Pacific yake nutsewa cikin sashin farantin Mariana

2. Divergent Plate

Irin waɗannan nau’ukan iyakar farantai sun kasance guda biyu masu rabewa da junan su, kuma yawanci hakan yana faruwa ne sakamakon ɓulɓular aman wuta da ke faruwa daga cikin ƙarƙashin ƙasa zuwa doron kasa.

Masana suka ce bayan wani lokaci kuma ruwan wutar zai daskare ya koma wasu siffa na duwatsu. Binciken masana na ƙarƙashin ƙasa sun tabbatar da wurare da dama da irin wannar rabewa ta farantai ke faruwa.

Misali tarin ruwa dake tsakanin gabas ta tsakiya da Africa wanda aka fi sani da tekun maliya –Red Sea muhimmin bincike ya tabbatar da aukuwan irin wannan rabewa ta mabambantan farantai guda biyu sobada shi wannan ruwa a kullum ƙara faɗaɗ yake yi a hankali amma ita wannan faɗaɗar da farantan ke yi ba a zahiri ta ke ba ballantana Ɗan-Adam ya iya gane abun da ke faruwa ba.

Abu na gaba shi ne binciken masana kimiyyar ƙarƙashin ƙasa da ya tabbatar da sake rabewar nahiyar Africa wanda ake ƙira Rift Valley. Hakan na nuna cewa nan da wasu shekaru masu yawa nahiyar Africa daga ɓangaren gabas za a samu ɓangarewar wani faranti da zai samar da wasu tsibirai.

Lallai hasashe ya tabbatar da hakan kamar yadda ƙasar Madagascar ta ɓantare da ita da ƙaramar nahiyar India wacce bayan ta rabe ne ta sake zuwa jikin Eurasia ta samar da Convergent Plate a yankin Himalaya.

Sannan abu na biyu da ya tabbatar da rabuwar farantai na doron kasa shine wani yanki da ake ƙira Baikal Rift Zone da yake kudancin ƙasar Russia

3. Transform Plate

Shi wannan iyakar farantai ya na aukuwa ne a inda aka samu wasu farantai na doron ƙasa su ke saɓawa da juna a tsaye, wato maimakon su kasance suna rabewa ko haɗewa kamar waɗanda aka yi bayanin su a baya.

Iyakar wannan farantin a tsaye yake, sannan yana zamewa da junaduk da shi ma yana haddasa iftila’in girgizar ƙasa da aman wuta. Mafiya shahararrun wuraren da ake samun irin wannan zamewa ta farantan doron ƙasa su ne yankin San Andreas na jihar California da ke ƙasar America, da makamantansu.

Sannan ana ƙiran irin waɗannan wurare Fault Zone, a inda ita wannan iyakar ta kasance tsakanin farantin tekun Pacific da na nahiyar North America.Har ila yau, wani ruwa da ke da alhakin rabewar farantan Arabia da na Africa shi ne Dead Sea.

Madogara
[1] Ducksters.com
[2] Wikipedia.com

Abdullahi Abubakar

Abdullahi Abubakar

I'm Abdullahi Abubakar from bajoga, gombe state. A former student in geography dept from fce,kano

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