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Waɗanne ne Ire-iren Ruwan Sama a Wannan Duniyar?

Kamar yadda ilimin kimiyya ya tabbatar shi ne ruwan sama yana samuwa ne ta cikin wasu jeranjiyar hanyoyi ne a baɗinance wato ba a zahiri suke ba, wanda mutun ba zai iya ganin su da idanunsa ba.

Sannan ruwan da yake wanzuwa a doron ƙasa shi ne yake bin wasu jerangiyar hanyoyi ya koma sama ya cure wuri guda sannan ya samar da wasu nau’ukan gajimare, wanda har ya kai matakin narkewa idan ya cika nauyi a sararin samaniya.

Hanyoyin da ruwa yake bi har ya kai ga komawa ruwan sama kuwa su ne; ƙaurar wani adadi na danshin ruwa daga cikin sassa daban-daban wato kamar tekuna, koguna, tabkuna da dai sauran wani sashi na babban tarin ruwa. Sannan kuma ba wai sai daga waɗannan wurare da aka lissafo kaɗai wannan adadi na ruwan ke samuwa izuwa sama ba, a’a har ma da jikin tsirrai a na iya samun wani kaso mai yawa da yake tashi zuwa sararin samaniya.

Idan an samu ruwan ya ƙaura zuwa wani mataki a cikin sama wato astrosphere a turance, kamar adadin kilomita 11 zuwa 12 sannan zai canja zuwa curarren gajimare sai kuma ya narke ya sake dawowa doron ƙasa a adadin ruwa mai tarin yawan gaske.

Wannan mataki na yin ruwan sama shi ake ƙira water cycle a turance, amma abun fahimta a nan ba lallai ba ne ya dawo a matsayin narkakken ruwa zalla saboda a wasu yankunan yana kasance musu a yanayi na ƙankara ko dusarta, dalilin kasancewar hakan kuma ya danganta da yanayi na ɗumin yankin.

Bayan haka ruwan sama ba ya faruwa a duk faɗin duniya baki ɗaya saboda banbancin wuri da kuma yanayi na lokaci. Ire-iren ruwan sama da mu ke da su uku ne, kamar haka;

1. Convectional Rainfall

2. Relief or Orographic Rainfall

3. Frontal or Cyclonic Rainfall

Waɗannan su ne ire-iren ruwan sama da suke wanzuwa a wannan duniyar, sannan kuma ga bayanai dangane da yadda suke kasantuwa a duniya:

1. Convectional Rainfall

Wato shi nau’in irin wannan ruwan yana kasancewa ne mafi akasari a tsakiyar duniya tsakanin wani yanki da ake kira tropics of cancer da tropics of Capricorn a inda waɗannan yankunan suka haɗa da wani sashi na tekun Atlantika, Pacific da wani sashi na nahiyar Africa wanda ake ƙira yankin equatorial.

Wannan yankin yana da tarin bishiyoyi masu yawan gaske, sannan yana da tarin tafkuna da kuma zafin rana sosai wanda yake ba da gudummawa wajen ɗumama yankin da zai sa tiriri ya tashi zuwa sama.

Abunda aka sani a kimiyyance shi ne da zaran wannan adadin tiriri da yake ƙunshe da ruwa yana tashi zuwa sararin samaniya shi ne zai dinga yin sanyi saboda da zarar yana yin sama zai dinga sanyi, wanda zai taimaka ya canza izuwa curarren gagimare wato Condensation. Da zaran ya kai wannan mataki to daga nan ba zai sake iya riƙe wani adadi na ruwa ba sai ya narke wato Saturation sai ya sake dawowa doron ƙasa a matsayin ruwa. 

Haka nan ba ko’ina ake samun sa ba sai wurare masu tsananin zafi kamar yadda aka ambata a farko. Sannan kuma shi irin wannan nau’in ruwan saman ana ɗaukar lokaci mai tsawo ana yin sa.

2. Frontal or Cyclone Rainfall

Shi irin wannan nau’in ruwan sama yana samuwa ne sakamakon wata iska mai tsanani da kan taso a wurare aƙalla biyu daga wuri mai nisan gaske, wanda waɗannan iskoki su ne kamar haka: tropical maritime air mass da kuma tropical continental air mass.

Bambancin da ke tsakanin adannan iskoki ya danganta ne ga bambanci wurare biyu wato ɗaya daga cikin su kamar tropical maritime air mass ta samo asali ne daga sassan teku za ta taso zuwa doron ƙasa wanda ita wannan iska tana ɗauke ne da wani adadin danshi ne na ruwa a cikin ta saboda akwai matsin lamba na iska a kan teku shi ya sa za ta yi ƙaura daga cikin teku zuwa tsandurin ƙasa.

Ita kuma tropical continental air mass ta samo asali ne daga kan doron ƙasa daga wani yanki da ake ƙira Hamada –desert, wanda ita wannan babbar iskar ba ta ɗauke da wani danshi na ruwa saboda ta taso ne daga inda babu kasantuwar tarin ruwa irin su kogi ko teku da dai sauran su.

Dukkan su za su taso ne daga wuraren da suke sai suzo su haɗe a wata iyaka a sama da ake ƙira inter-tropical convergence zone, sannan abun lura shi ne waɗannan iskoki ba irin wacce muka sani ba ne wacce take kaɗawa mu shaƙa ba, wadannan suna da tsananin ƙarfi.

Bayan waɗannan iskoki guda biyu sun zo iyakar da suke haɗewa ita tropical maritime air mass tana ɗauke da danshi don haka tana da nauyi fiye da tropical continental air mass saboda haka ne maritime air mass ta fi yin sama tare da tallafin continental air mass daga nan kuma sai su cure wuri guda su samar da girgije wanda zai juye zuwa ruwa, wannan ruwan ana samun sane a yankunan yammacin Africa.

3. Relief or Orographic Rainfall

Irin wannan ruwan saman yana aukuwa ne a wasu keɓantattun wurare da suke da yawan tsaunuka ko wanda suke da tsawon gaske da zarar iskar da muke ƙira maritime air mass ta taso daga in da take to za ta ci karo da wanɗannan tsaunuka ko tudu wanda za su tare ta su ba ta daman tashi zuwa sama cikin sauki, kuma da zaran ta isa inter-tropical convergence zone za ta sauya zuwa gajimare nan da nan ruwa sai ya samu.

Bayani mai sauƙi don fahimtar ire-iren wannan ruwan shi ne kamar yankunan Jos da Adamawa a Nigeria su ne suke samun irin wannan ruwan saman da ma wasu sassan wurare a duniya baki ɗaya.

Matukar akwai tsaunuka a wuri to irin wannan ruwan suke samu. Kamar kudancin Africa mai yawan tsaunuka da ina tsaunin Himalaya yake na nahiyar Asia wanda ya ratsa ta cikin ƙasashe da dama kamar du India, Nepal, Bhutan da China.

Masana kimiyya sun tabbatar cewa da zarar iska tana kaɗawa a wannan yankuna to gija-gijai za su haɗu su samar da ruwan sama mai tarin yawa. Ke nan, tarin tsaunuka a faɗin duniya suna da matuƙar tasiri wajen yanayi na samuwar ruwan saman mai yawa a doron duniya wanda mafi yawan nahiyoyi masu yawan tsaunuka ko tudu suke samun sa duk da ma wani lokacin kan iya juyawa zuwa nau’in dusar ƙanqara maimakon ruwa zalla, musamman ma yankin da ake ƙira Polar wanda ya ƙunshi mafi yawan ƙasashen da ke nahiyar Europe, da Asia.

Madogara

[1]     General Geography in Diagrams for West Africa.

[2]     Encyclopedia of Science and Earth

[3]     Comprehensive Geography, Six Edition

Abdullahi Abubakar

Abdullahi Abubakar

I'm Abdullahi Abubakar from bajoga, gombe state. A former student from geography dept. In fce,kano

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