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Ta Yaya Cuta Ke Shiga Jikin Mutum?

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Akwai cututtuka da dama masu matuƙar illa da ke shiga jikin mutum. Wasu su kan yi sanadiyyar mutuwar mutum, ko wata dabba ko kuma wani abu mai rai, ya dai danganta da wace irin cuta ce ta shiga jikin halittar.

Misali cututtuka kamar su HIV, Covid-19 da makamantansu sun yi sanadiyyar mutuwar miliyoyin mutane a duniya, a inda kuma har yanzu suke ƙara ruruwa. Shin ko kasan ta yaya cuta ke shiga jikin mutum ta yi masa illa?

Cell ya kasance jigo ne na rayuwar mutum, ko kuma rayuwa gaba ɗaya. Masana kimiyya suka ce ya samu ne daga ruwa, wanda shi ne asalin samuwar rayuwa. Masanin kimiyyar halittu Robert Hooke ne ya fara gano jigon rayuwa cell a shekarar 1655, wanda hakan ya faru ne ta hanyar amfani da na’urar ganin ƙananan abubuwa, saboda yadda wannan kwaya ta kasance mai tsananin ƙanƙanta da ido ba ya iya ganinta ƙuru-ƙuru sai ta hanyar amfani da na’ura.

Daga nan kuma masana kimiyyar da suka ba da gudummawarsu da nazariyyoyi sun haɗa da Theodor Schwann, da Matthias Schleiden, da Rudolf Virchow, da kuma Anton van Leeuwenhoek. Waɗannan masana kimiyya su suka gina nazariyyoyi masu muhimmanci a game da jigon rayuwa cell

A wannan binciken an gano cewa wanan jigo na rayuwa ya kasance uba ga rayuwar kowacce halitta, don haka kowacce halitta sai da shi take iya rayuwa. A cikin binciken aka ƙara gano kaso 90% na jigon rayuwar ruwa ne, wanda hakan ke ƙara tabbatar cewa shi ma ya samo asali ne daga ruwa. To wannan jigo na rayuwa ya kasance a kowane sashi na jikin halittu, duk inda aka samu saɓanin kasantuwarsa to babu rayuwa a wurin.

Yaya cuta take?

Ita kuma cuta, kamar yadda take ƙwaya ce wacce take lahanta mutum, dalilin ƙiranta da cuta ma kenan. Sannan cutar da za ta illata wata halitta ba lallai ba ne ta kasance mai illa sosai ga wata halitta, sai dai idan ta kasance mai tsananin ƙarfi. Akwai wasu cututtuka a jikin wasu halittu kamar dabbobi ko tsuntsaye waɗanda da zaran sun shiga jikin mutum za su kar shi, ke nan cutarwarsu ba ta kasance iri ɗaya da ta dabbobin ko mutanen ba.

Cuta tana shiga jikin mutum ta hanyar samun wata ƙofar shiga; kamar baki, hanci, ko kuma ta hanyar jima’i da sauransu. Sannan ta waɗannan hanyoyin ne cuta ke yaɗuwa a tsakanin halittu. Bayan haka akwai kamar ta hanyar jini, ko ƙwayoyin halitta, ko yawu ko kuwa ta hanyar shaƙa da sauransu.

Da zaran cuta ta shiga jikin mutum, abu na farko da za ta yi shine yin ƙoƙari wajen mamayar duk wani jigon rayuwa na jikinsa. Da zaran ta fara wannan mamaya, hakan na nufin za ta mamaye dukkanin inda take da ƙarfin mamaya. A lokacin da tsarin garkuwar jikin mutum da ake ƙira immune system suka fahimci wani baƙo ya shigo kuma har ya fara ƙoƙarin mamaye jigon rayuwar mutum, a lokacin ne za su fara ƙoƙarin yaƙarsa. A wannan lokaci da suke gumurzu a tsakaninsu shi ne mutum zai ji zazzabi ya fara damunsa wasu lokutan har da ciwon kai.

Amma a lokacin da cuta ta fi ƙarfin garkuwar jikin mutum har ta yi nasarar kafa sansani a jikin mutum, a lokacin ne za ta fara hayayyafa ta hanyar gurɓata jigon rayuwar mutum. Wannan dalilin ya sa yawancin masana suka tafi kan cewa cuta ba ƙwaya ba ce mai rai, kawai tana samun haɓɓaka ne a yayin da ta gamu da jigon rayuwa, amma ba za ta iya yin nasara ba tare da jigon rayuwar ba.

Abunda kuma ake ƙira rigakafi shi ne wani yunƙuri don horar da garkuwar jikin mutum yadda za ta fahimci baƙo idan ya shigo, kamar cuta ba sai ta fara mamaye jikin mutum ba. Amma rigakafi ba yana nufin hana cuta shiga jikin halittu ba ne.

Idan aka ba wa garkuwar jikin mutum horo za ta ankare da zarar cuta ta shiga jikin mutum sannan ta fara yaƙarta. Amma duk da haka garkuwar jikin mutum ta kasu kashi-kashi, wato ta wani ta fi ta wani ƙarfi. Duk lokacin da garkuwar jikin mutum ta ke da matuƙar ƙarfi, zai yi wuya cuta ta yi tasiri a jikin mutum saboda a wanann gumurzu za ta murƙushi ta.

Madogara

[1] Discoveries of the Cell Theory by CPalms.org

[2] How do viruses infect cells? By ASU-Ask A Biologist

Mohiddeen Ahmad

I am Muhammad Auwal Ahmad, an inquisitive student, tech aficionado, science enthusiast and a writer. I am the founder and CEO of Flowdiary.

8 Comments

  1. Masha Allah muna so a fara gabatar mana da shi kansa Ilimin Halittun (Biology),tabbass hakan zai kara taimaka mana. Allah ya kara hazaka.

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