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Taƙaitaccen Tarihin Kyamara da Cigabanta a Duniyar Zamani

camera kyamara
Kyamara ƙirar kamfanin Argus

Yadda duniya ta ci gaba a yau, da wayoyin zamani da na’urori mutane suke ɗaukar hotuna har da bidiyoyi da kyamarorinsu -camera. Kuma kullum ƙara samun cigaba ake yi wajen inganta da ƙara hasken kyamarorin ta yadda duniya za ta ci gaba a zamanance.

Shin wa ke da alhakin ƙirƙiro kyamara ne?

Wani babban masanin kimiyyar gani da ya rayu a karni na 9, a garin Basra na ƙasar Iraq mai suna Hassan Ibn al-Haytham, shi ake ɗaura wa ragamar zama uban kyamara. Wannan babban masani da fiƙirarsa ta zagaye duniya shi ya fara ƙirƙiro kyarama a duniya. Yayi rubuce-rubuce kan kimiyyar gani da bayanin fiƙirorinsa a cikin wani littafinsa The Book of Optics.

A ƙarnukan baya cikin shekarar 1685 wani masani mai suna Johann Zahn yayi amfani da fiƙirar ibn al-Haytham ya ƙirƙiro kyarama, kana daga bisani sauran masana irinsu Joseph Niepce da Louis Daguerre suka ɗauko hanyar ƙirƙiro kyamarori da za su yi amfani har wajen fitar da hoto.

Wasu masana tarihi suka ruwaito cewa wani masanin falsafar Sin da ya rayu shekara ta 470 B.C mai suna Mo-Ti, shi ya fara kawo fiƙirar kyamara, daga bisani kuma bayan shekaru 50 ɗaya daga cikin shahaharrun masana falsafar Girka Aristotle, ya ɗauko wannan fiƙira kuma yayi ta’anmuli da ita a cikin ayyukansa. Sannan bayan shekaru dubu da ‘yan kai, masani Ibn al-Haytham ya faɗaɗa bincike kan wannan fiƙira kuma shi ma ya gina tashi, sannan ya fara ƙirƙiro kyamarar Pinhole wacce ta kasance ta farko a duniya.

Lamarin kyamara da cigabanta bai faɗaɗa sosai ba sai a cikin ƙarni na 16 zuwa 17, lokacin da masana irinsu Galileo Galilei, da Johannes  Kepler , da Robert Boyle, da Robert Hooke da sauransu suke bincike don faɗaɗa fannoninsu wajen gano ƙwayoyin da suka kasance masu tsananin ƙanƙanta, ko kuma hango wani abu mai nisa kamar yadda Galileo yayi. Don haka sai binciken kyamara ya ƙara faɗaɗa don an gano wasu tarin amfani a tattare da ita.

Daga nan sai hankali ya koma kan fitar da hoto da tace shi daga ɗaukar kyamara. A shekarar 1816 masani Joseph Niepce ya fara ƙoƙarin samar da hoto, ya yi amfani da sinadarai da dama da kuma haske, ta yadda hoton abunda yake so ya fito zai manne a jikin littafi. Masana suka ce wannan shi ne hoton da ake tunani ya kasance na farko a duniya.

A shekarar 1839, Louis Daguerre kuma, wanda ya kasance abokin aiki ga Niepce  ya yi amfani da tashi fiƙirar shi ma wajen samar da hoto. Daga nan sai a shekarar 1885 masani George Eastman yayi ƙoƙarin samar da hoton leda. Sai kuma a gabannin yaƙin duniya na farko, a shekarar 1913, Oskar Barnack ya fara gudanar da bincikensa kan yadda za a iya ƙirƙirar kyamarar da kowa zai iya amfani da ita. Don haka aka samar da kyamarar Leica daga bisani aka sabunta ta zuwa Leica 1, wacce ta samu karɓuwa a idon kasuwa bayan yaƙin duniya na farko.

Daga wannan lokaci masarrafan kyamarori suka ci gaba da bincike don rage girman kyarama ta hanyar ƙirƙirar wacce za ta dace da zamani, wacce kuma mutane za su so, kuma suka yi ta sayar wa mutane. A shekarar 1948 aka samar da kyamarar Polaroid wacce ta kasance daban da sauran kyamarori, saboda yadda ta zo da tsarukan da mutane suke so.

Kyamarar Polaroid

Daga nan masana suka ci gaba da ƙirƙiro kyamarorin da za su rinƙa dacewa da zamani kamar na tafi-da-gidanka, na na’urori, har na wayoyin hannu a wannan zamanin.

Madogara

  • Britannica.com
  • History.com
  • Sciencing.com

Mohiddeen Ahmad

I am Muhammad Auwal Ahmad, an inquisitive student, tech aficionado, science enthusiast and a writer. I am the founder and CEO of Flowdiary.

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