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Bayani kan Fasahohin Sadarwa: 1G zuwa 6G

A tarihin duniyar fasahar sadarwa, ranar 10 ga watan March na shekarar 1876, ta kasance rana wacce duniya ba za a taba mantawa da ita ba; saboda namijin ƙoƙarin da babban masani Alexander Graham Bell yayi na mayar da sauti zuwa ziri ta yadda za a iya sauraron muryar mutum a cikin na’ura.

Tun daga wannan lokaci duniyar fasaha ta kasance abar kwatance, don ganin irin cigaban da take so ta kawo a duniya. Haƙiƙa da ace waccen ranar masani Graham Bell bai samu nasara a yunƙurinsa ba, zai yi wuya a yau mu iya sanin wata fasahar sadarwa.

A yau mun iya sanin yadda muke buɗe wayoyin hannu ko na’urori mu shiga yanar gizo, mu tura saƙonni har ma mu kalli bidiyoyi ko mu tura su zuwa wata nahiyar. Amma shin ka taɓa tambayar kanka tayaya duniya ta kawo haka? Ko kuwa ta tambayi tarihin yadda abubuwan suke wakana?

A yau za ka iya buɗe wayarka ko na’ura kayi hira da mutum kana ganishi, shi ma yana ganinka. Haka nan ka shiga yanar gizo ka tura masa saƙonni kala-kala, kamar kayayyakin sadarwa masu nauyi da dai makamantansu. Duk waɗannan abubuwan sun faru ne sakamakon samun cigaba a bangaren fasahohin sadarwa.

Fasahohin Sadarwa

Kamar yadda muka san muna amfani da fasahar sadarwan 3G ko 4G, ka taba tambayar kanka tayaya muka kawo wannan lokacin? Shin menene ya faru a baya?

Na farko: 1G

Fasahar sadarwa ta farko 1G, da ake yi wa laƙabi da ginuwa na farko ta fara bayyana a duniya a ƙasar Japan a shekarar 1979. Ta taimakawa wayoyi a lokacin don isar da saƙonnin murya na alama kawai. Kasancewarsa na farko bashida sauri don ba ya wuce 2kbps. An yi amfani da shi daga shekarar 1980 zuwa 1990.

Na biyu: 2G

Cigaban da aka samu na gaba shine ƙaddamar da 2G da aka yi a ƙasar Finland a shekarar 1991. 2G ya fi 1G sauri da yanayin bada tazara wajen amfani da shi, sannan babban banbancinshi da 1G shine za a iya tura saƙonnin karantawa. 2G ya samu karɓuwa sosai a faɗin duniya saboda yadda ya fi na bayanshi komai, kamar sauri yanada 64kbps; wato ya ninka 1G sau 62. An yi amfani da shi a faɗin duniya daga shekarar 1991 zuwa 2000, amma har yanzu (2020) wasu suna amfani da shi.

Na uku: 3G

Bayyanar 3G ya sa yanayin tsarin tafiyar da fasaha ya canja a duniya duba da yadda ya zo da salo kala-kala. Yanada saurin da ya kai 144kbps har zuwa 2mbps, wato ya ninka 2G a sauri sau kusan 30. Shine ya bai wa manyan wayoyin zamani kamar su Android, iPhone da Samsung damar shiga yanar gizo kai tsaye da kuma tura saƙonni, kallon bidiyoyi, tura bidiyoyi da sauran manyan abubuwan da mutum zai iya na sadarwa. An ƙaddamar da fasahar sadarwan 3G a 2001, a inda ya fara aiki a ƙasashen nahiyar turai, Japan da China,

Na hudu: 4G

Duk da irin saurin da 3G yake da shi, amma duba da yadda kayayyakin sadarwa suke ƙara nauyi yayi sanadiyyar kasantuwar fasahar 4G a duniya. Na biyu, yawaitar manyan wayoyin hannu da kuma irin ƙarfin fasahar sadarwan da suke bukata don gudanar da aiki yadda ya kamata. A shekarar 2010 4G ya shigo duniya. Yanada saurin da ya kai 100mbps.

Na biyar: 5G

Wannan fasahar sadarwan har yanzu duniya ba ta gama mallakarta ba, wato duk da ta kasance a wasu ƙasashe kadan, amma yanayin aiki da tsadarta yasa wasu suka kasa mallakarta. Babban dalilin kasantuwar fasahar sadarwan 5G shi ne don taimakawa fasahar Internet of Things, fasahar Artificial Intelligence, fasahar Self-Driving Technology, fasahohin Virtual Reality (VR)/Augmented Reality (AR) da fasahar Robotics. Wannan ya nuna asalin kudiri ko aikin fasahar sadarwa ta 5G ba an yi ta ba ne don wayoyin hannu ko na’urorin tafi-da-gidanka, an yi ta ne don waɗannan fasahohi da suke shirin canja duniya.

Ƙasashen South Korea da China sune kan gaba wajen gina wannan fasahar, inda suka fara amfani da ita tun a karshen shekarar 2019. Fasahar sadarwan 5G tanada saurin da ya kai 35.46 Gbps, wato ta fi 4G sau sama da 30. An ƙiyasce cewa wannan fasaha za ta yi aiki ne daga shekarar 2020 zuwa 2030.

Na shida: 6G

Duk da duniya ba ta gama mallakar fasahar sadarwan 5G ba, amma wani abunda ya ba wa duniya mamaki shine yunkurin ƙasar China don gina 6G. Wannan ya nuna cewa ƙasar China tana son matso da nesa zuwa kusa, don duk wani hasashe na kasantuwar fasahar sadarwan 6G ya tafi ne kan cewa za ta kasantu a shekarun 2030 zuwa 2045; dai-dai da hasashen kasantuwar lokacin Technological Singularity.

Shin yaya duniya za ta kasance bayan mallakar fasahar sadarwan 6G? Shin hakan ba zai kasance barazana ga rayuwar Ɗan-Adam ba?

Mohiddeen Ahmad

Mohiddeen Ahmad

I am Muhammad Auwal Ahmad, an inquisitive student, tech aficionado, science enthusiast and a writer. I am the founder and CEO of Flowdiary.

13 Comments

  1. Mun gode sir
    Amma ina dan buqatar karin bayani pls akan ma’anar bps din Nan 🤔

    • ps din na nufin Per Second (p/s), idan kuma aka hada shi da mbps ko kbps na nufin yanayin saurin sadarwar da kake yi, yanayin saurin yanar gizonka wato internet speed. Idan mbps ne yana tafiya da Megabits, idan kuma kbps ne yada tafiya da Kilobits, duk kuma per second.

      Sai dai akwai banbanci a tsakanin wadannan Mbps da MBps. A duk lokacin da b din ta kasance karama shi yake nuna ana nufin internet speed, akasin hakan kuwa ma’ana idan aka yi amafani da babbar B yana nuna adadin data da yake dauka a wajen saukar da wani abu. Misali idan za ka saukar fa bidiyo, sai yake nuna maka 2MBps, kenan a duk second daya yana samun damar saukar da 2MB daga nauyin bidiyon da yake saukarwa.

      Da fatan za ka ci gaba da kasanceqa tare da mu a shafin Flowdiary.

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