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Tsarin Bincike

Bincike kamar yadda ake ce masa “research” a turance, ya kan iya zama neman ilimi, fadada sanin wani abu, tantance wani abu, kokarin gano wani abu ko kuma yunkuri domin inganta sani. A yau kamar yadda bincike ya zama ruwan dare wato ya kasance duk wanda yake son yin wadannan abubuwa da na lissafo a sama to sai ya zaburar da kansa zuwa fadawa duniyar bincike.

Bincike ya rabu kashi-kashi haka kuma iri-iri. Wani lokaci binciken da wani masanin kimiyya yake yi ya sha banban da wanda masanin falsafa yake yi, saboda yanayin kasantuwar tsarin binciken da kuma akala da aka juya shi.

Iren-iren Bincike

  1. Binciken kimiyya: wannan bincike ya fi shahara a wurin masana kimiyya, yadda suke dukufa wajen gano wani abu da ya danganci kimiyya. Misali gano maganin cutar Covid-19, gano wata sarkakiya a lissafi, gano yadda za a iya kawo karshen wata matsala da sauransu.
  2. Binciken nazari: wannan kuma bincike ne da bai shafi kimiyya kai tsaye ba, wato bincike ne da ya shafi kokarin samar da mafita a cikin al’umma, gano adadin yawan mutanen duniya, kawo shawarwari kan yadda za a inganta wani abu, yunkurin kawar da wani shakku a cikin al’umma da sauransu.

Duk wani bincike da bai shafi kimiyya kai tsaye ba to yana wannan jadawali na binciken nazari saboda ba bincike ba ne wanda za a gano sabon wani abu sai dai karfafa ko inganta na da. Amma binciken kimiyya kuwa ana yinshi ne yayinda aka gano wani abu ta yadda zai iya kawo sauyi a duniya. Misali kirkirar wata cuta ko maganinta, kirkirar wata sarkakiyar lissafi, gano wani abu da ba a sanshi ba, gano wata hanyar warware wata sarkakiyar lissafi da makamantansu.

Dan haka duk wani makaranci ya kamata ya san bangaren da ya kamata ya juya akalar bincikenshi gare ta; shin bincken nazari ne ko kuwa na kimiyya?
Sannan ana yin bincike ne yayinda ake da abin fadi, ba kawai haka za a yi ta zubo surutai ba. Ana yin bincike yayinda aka zo kammala karatu, sannan ana gudanar da bincike yayinda makaranci ko manazarci ya gano wani abu ko da ace bai zo matakin kammala karatu ba.

Binciken da ake gudanar da shi yayinda aka zo kammala karatu ana kiransa “research project”, “dissertation” ko “thesis” ya dai danganta da matakin karatun da ake yi. Sannan binciken da ake gudanarwa ko da bayan an gama karatu ne ko ba a zo kammalawa ba shi ake kira “research paper.”

A duk wadannan binciken ana so mai bincike ya fayyace me ya gano, me ya ke kokarin saukakawa, me ya kirkiro ko kuma wace fa’ida bincikensa zai yi a duniya. A binciken da ake gudanarwa yayin kammala karatu ne ake warware komai da komai, daki-daki haka nan tsari-tsari; amma a binciken gama-duniya kuwa wato “research paper” kuwa ana yinshi ne a takaice ba a so yayi yawa, wani lokaci ma ana kiyasce adadin shafukan da ake so kada ya wuce.

Mutum ya kan iya yin bincikensa na kimiyya ko na nazari a dukkanin wadannan binciken – walau “research paper” ko “research project”, sai dai kawai abunda yake bincike akansa ya kasance yanada muhimmanci.

Bayan duk wadannan mutum ya kan iya yin bincike na karan-kansa ba tare da alakanta shi da karatunsa ba. Amma sai dai wannan bincike bay a daga cikin tsarukan bincike da aka tsara na makaranta. A wannan binciken mutum zai yi kokarin sanin abubuwan da bai sani ba wato kenan zai yi bincike ne don neman ilimi a karan-kansa. Irin wannan bincike shi ne “mutane nawa ne a duniya?”, “waya ya kashe Adolf Hitler?”, “tayaya cutar daji ke kama mutum” da sauransu. Kuma idan aka yi la’akari za a ga cewa duk wanda yake yin wannan binciken sai ya jira wadancan manazartan sun wallafa nasu bincike kafin shi ya samu. Wato wadancan sune masana bincike, shi wannan kawai yana kokari ne ya fadada iliminsa na sanin abubuwa.

Bincike ya wajabta a kan duk wani Dan-Adam saboda da shi ne ake sanin hakikanin rayuwar mutum, da shi komai ya wanzu sannan da shi aka gano abubuwan da Dan-Adam bai taba saninsu ba, ashe kenan neman ilimi ne da saukaka harkokin rayuwa.

Idan ana so a san yadda ake gudanar da kowanne irin bincike daki-daki a nemi littafin Dr. Muhammad Gishiwa mai suna Introduction to Research Methods.

Mohiddeen Ahmad

I am Muhammad Auwal Ahmad (Mohiddeen), a technologist and a writer. I Specifically write on sciences and modern technology. Hit my about page to learn more about me.

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