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Tarihin Duniya: Menene Babban Cigaba a Duniyar Kimiyya da Fasaha? (2)

Daga lokacin da mutum ya kasance mai yin tunani don samarwa kansa mafita a lokuta da dama, wato yadda wadannan mutane na baya suka yi, sai ya kasance logic ya samu. Tuni mun san da cewa makasudin samuwar ilimi shine tunani kamar yadda masanin kimiyya Albert Einstein ya ce, to sai ya kasance mutum ya ci gaba da amfani da ilimin logic yana kara zakulo wasu hanyoyin fishshe da kansa wanda hakan ya faru ne a salsalar tarihin Dan-Adam. Daga nan mutum ya ci gaba da rayuwarsa a duniya tare da gina matakan samarwa kansa mafita ta kowacce hanya, a tarihi wannan ake cewa pre-historic era.


Ancient era kuwa ya fara ne daga karni 7 kafin zuwan Annabi Isa (AS, Jesus Christ) (7th century B.C) da kuma karni 5 bayanshi (5th century A.D). A wannan zamani aka samu manyan masana masu tunani da suka gina cikakken ilimin falsafa daga ilimin logic. Ilimin falsafa shi ya zo da tunani mai zurfi wajen gano musabbabin ilimi, rayuwa ko mutuwa, kasantuwa,nazari da lissafi da sauransu. A takaice dai falsafa ilimi ne da yake nuna hanyar wayewa tunda daman sunan haka yake nufi.


Har ila yau, an kasa wadannan zamanunnukan bisa ga rayuwar wasu shahararrun masana falsafa da kuma sukayi ruwa-da-tsaki wajen gina falsafar girka (Greek) wadanda duk sun ta’allaka ne ga wadancen karnukan da na lissafo a sama, akwai:
Ancient era: 7th century B.C – 5th century A.D – wannan babban zamani da ya kunshi zamanunnuka da dama ya shafe shekaru dubu daya da dari biyu (1,200 years). A wannan babban zamanin aka yi wasu zamanunnuka kamar pre-Socratic era 7th – 5th century B.C; zamanin da aka yi kafin zuwan babban masanin falsafar Girka, Socrates; Socratic era 5th – 4th century B.C a wannan zamanin aka yi manyan masana falsafar Girka kamar su Socrates, Plato da Aristotle wadanda suka bayar da cikakken ci-gaba wajen gina wayewar tsohuwa da sabuwar duniya, kuma aka fassara da dama daga cikin ayyukansu domin nazartar su a duk fadin duniya; da sauran zamanunnuka kamar su Hellenistic era (3rd B.C – 3rd A.D) da Roman era (1st B.C – 5th A.D).


Wadannan zamanunnuka da aka yi a baya wadanda hakika mutum ya samu ginuwar sanin wanene shi da kuma tunani kan samuwarsa. An samu ginuwar addinai, falsafofi, akidoji da sauransu. Duk ilimin da mutum ya samu a wannan zamanin to babu shakka tushensa falsafa ne, wanda kuma ya samu ne ta hanyar ilimin logic wato tunani don wayar da kansa. Daga nan falsafa ta ci gaba da yaduwa a sassan wurare daban-daban a duniya kuma mutum ya ci gaba da amfani da iliminsa wajen warware matsalolinsa.

Zanen Plato, masanin falsafar Girka

Medieval era: 5th – 15th century A.D – wannan a jerin zamanunnuka shine zamanin tsakiya wanda ya kunshi wasu zamanunnuka a karkashinsa kamar Islamic Golden Age, Viking Age da sauransu. A wannan zamanin babu shakka duniya ta fuskanci tashin hankula ta hanyar yake-yake saboda banbance-banbancen addinai, jinsi, kasa da kuma yawan sabanin fahimta. Amma duk da haka duniya ta ci gaba matuka ta hanyar fadada ilimin kimiyya da kuma kasuwanci wanda daga karshe yayi sanadiyyar wayewar wannan zamani.


Daga karni na 8 har zuwa na 15 aka samu fitattun masana kimiyya da falsafa daga kasashen gabas kamar Farisa wanda sanadiyyar zuwan addinin musulunci ne ya janyo haka. Wadannan masana kimiyya kamar su Ibn Sina, al-Khwarizmi, Bn Hayyan, al-Jazari, Ibn al-Haytham da sauransu sun taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen gina kimiyyar zamani.
Karanta: Su Waye Masana Kimiyyar Musulunci?

A wannan zamanunnukan an samu ci gaba a bangarorin kimiyya da fasaha da dama kama daga fikirar lissafi, fikirar yi-da-kanka, ilimin magani da likitanci da sauransu. Fannonin kimiyya da aka fi ba wa muhimmanci sun hada da chemistry, physics, mathematics, astronomy da medicine. Da wadannan ilimai mutum ya samu gamsuwa cewa abubuwa da dama zai iya yi kuma zai iya ganowa. Mutum ya samu fadada bincikensa ta hanyar tunani da neman ilimi a sassan duniya.

Modern era: wannan shine wanda ake kira duniyar zamani. Wannan zamanin ma ya kunshi zamanunnuka kala-kala a cikinsa, wasu lokutan saboda ci-gaban da aka samu a wani fanni. Jadawalin zamanin ya rabu kashi-kashi kamar daga Early Modern Period daga karni na 15 har zuwa farkon karni na 18; Late Modern Period wanda ya fara daga tsakiyar karni na 18 har zuwa yakin duniya na farko; Contemporary History kuma daga yakin duniya na biyu har zuwa yau.

Mu hadu a kashi na gaba

Maudu’i: Tarihin Duniya: Menene Babban Cigaba a Duniyar Kimiyya da Fasaha? (3)

Mataimakin maudu’i na daya: Cigaban Kimiyya da Fasaha a Tsohuwar Duniya
Mataimakin maudu’i na biyu: Cigaban Kimiyya da Fasaha a Duniyar Zamani

Mohiddeen Ahmad

I am Muhammad Auwal Ahmad (Mohiddeen), a technologist and a writer. I Specifically write on sciences and modern technology. Hit my about page to learn more about me.

2 Comments

  1. Masha Allah, Allah ya kara basira da kuma ilmin Wanda shine ginshikin zuwanmu wannan manhajar.

    Keep up

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