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Nazariyyar Darwinism: Salsalar Samuwar Mutum da Rayuwa a Duniyar Earth

A kusan karshen karni na 19 cikin shekarar 1859 wani bature masanin kimiyyar halittu mai suna Charles Darwin ya gabatar da wata nazariyyar juyin halitta cikin wani littafinsa mai suna On the Origin of Species.

Wannan nazariyya da ta yi kaurin suna da “theory of evolution”, “Darwinian theory” ko “Darwinism”, a inda kuma ake kiranta da “tadawwauri” a larabce, shiyasa ma bahaushe ya saci kalmar, sa’annan ya kara kiranta da “nazariyyar juyin halitta”

Lokuta da dama mutane suna yawan samun sabanin fahimtar wannan nazariyya a inda wasu suke cewa ai nazariyyar tana nuni ne da cewa asalin mutum daga biri yake, wasu kuwa suna musa hakan cewa Darwin ba haka yake nufi ba illa nuna cewa halittu suna juyawa bayan wani lokaci. Masana suka ce shi kansa Darwin bai kawo cewa abu kaza ne farkon halitta ba, kawai shi dai ya fahimci cewa halittu suna juyawa (wato su chanja yanayin tsarinsu, kamar “developing” a hankali a hankali), sannan fahimtarsa ta biyu gano cewa mutum ya hada jinsi da biri. Wato kwayoyin halittar mutum da na biri kaso 99% iri daya ne. Wannan dalilin ya sa yayi tunanin cewa watakila fa asalin mutum daga biri yake, daga baya ya fara chanja halitta har ya zo daidai mutum.

Domin fahimtar nazariyyar “evolution” dole sai mun koma tarihi kamar yadda abun yake nu nemi sanin yaya rayuwa ta fara a wannan duniyar. A tarihi, a kalla rayuwa ta fara ne a wannan duniyar shekaru sama da biliyan 3 da suka gabata. Hakan ya faru ne sakamakon “ruwa” da ya kasantu a duniyar. Dan haka ake tunanin rayuwa ta fara ne a cikin ruwan teku, sai dai babu wata hujja karara da take nuna wace halitta ce ta fara samun ikon rayuwa a cikin wannan teku. Wasu masana suka ce dodon-gori ne, wasu suka ce kifi ne, wasu suka ce a’a duk ba wadannan ba ne.
Karanta: Me yasa muke rayuwa a duniyar earth

Sai dai wadanda suke a bangaren cewa kifi ne ya fara samu rayuwa su suka fi rinjaye saboda gano cewa kifi yana yin kwai; kuma halittu kala-kala na cikin ruwa har da na tudu suna fita daga cikin wadannan kwan bayan kyankyasa. Hakika wannan ba karamin mamaki ya ba wa mutane ba a duniya. Dan haka sai ya kasance watakila bayan kifi yayi kyankyasar kwansa sai wasu su fita tudu, wasu kuwa su ci gaba da rayuwarsu a cikin ruwa. Wata dabi’ar kifi ita ce cin kananan kifaye. Wato da zaran wani kifi ya girma kuma ya fi wasu girma kawai sai yayi ta lakume su yana cinyewa. Masana suka ce wannan dabi’ar ta samo asali ne tun lokacin da wannan kifi ya rasa abinci, sai ya fara kame yayansa yana cinyewa. Haka wani ma idan ya ga wani da ba jinsinsu daya ba ya cinye ko kuma idan ya fi shi girma.

Bayan wasu halittu sun fahimci ba su dace da rayuwa a ruwa ba sai suka fito tudu domin su samu abun kalaci. Daga nan kuma halittu suka fara wanzuwa tare da haihuwar wasu da ba sa jinsi daya ma ko kuma ba sa kama. Kamar maciji yana kyankyashe kwanza a inda jinsin “reptiles” za su fita da dama kamar su macijin da kansa, guza, damo, sari-kutub, tandara, kasa da sauransu. Wannan ya kara nuna cewa a wancen lokacin haka halittu suka ci gaba da hayayyafa har aka samu tsuntsaye, dabbobi da sauran halittu.

Haka a wannan matakin ne aka samu kasantuwar biri wanda ya kasance mummunan gaske har shima ya fara juya halittarsa ya kuma rabu kashi-kashi. Daga wannan lokaci biri ya fara juya halitta a hankali a hankali, bayan wuce wasu matakai kuma na kasantuwarsa a jinsin biri kamar gorilla zuwa chimpanzee (wasu daga cikinsu), wasu kuwa suka rarrabu zuwa sassan wurare a duniya domin dacewa da rayuwarsu, wannan shi ake cewa “adaptation.” Tarihi ya nuna cewa dukkan wadannan halittu sun fara ne a nahiyar Afirka kafin daga bisani su watse. Haka wadanda suka zauna a wannan nahiya suka dace da yanayin wurin har suka fara juya halitta bayan daruruwa da dubunnan shekaru.

Samuwar mutum a wannan duniya a kalla kan iya kaiwa shekaru dubu 250 da suka gabata bayan wuce wasu matakan halittar mutum da suka hada daga homo habilis, homo erectus, homo sapiens da sauransu. A salsalar tarihi kuwa a kalla mutanen da suka yi rayuwa kamar mu sun shude ne shekaru dubu 100 ne baya. Wadannan mutane suna iya yin farautar abinci da kansu sai dai basuda wasu kuzari da muke da shi yanzu kamar na yin magana da juna, fikira da kuma zunzurutun basira ko ilimi, sun dai kasance kawai suna rayuwa da namun daji ne a cikin dajin.

Bayan wani lokaci da suka fara chanja halitta tana komawa irin ta mutane, wato gashin jikkunansu ya fara zubewa, halittarsu ta fara juyawa tana komawa mai dan kyau, sai suka fara tunani da samarwa kansu mafita. Tarihi ya nuna cewa bayan wadannan sun shude sai aka fara samun wasu wadanda suka fisu haske da kuma kyau. Haka dai halittarsu ta ci gaba da juyawa tana kara chanja musu salon da zai dace da yanayinsu da kuma yankinsu.

Masana su ka ce dalilin da yasa har yanzu ake ganin wasu birrai a duniya shine rashin dacewa da wurin da zai juya musu halitta ne. Suka ci gaba da cewa har yanzu kuwa mutum bai daina juya halittarsa ba saboda idan ka yi duba mutanen da suka rayu shekaru dubu baya daban suke da mu, haka shekaru dari baya ma daban suke da mu, har ila yau kuma wadanda za a haifa nan gaba su ma za suyi daban da mu. Wannan yana faruwa ne sakamakon juyin halitta domin dacewa da zamani da kuma yanayi.

Mohiddeen Ahmad

I am Muhammad Auwal Ahmad (Mohiddeen), a technologist and a writer. I Specifically write on sciences and modern technology. Hit my about page to learn more about me.

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