Challenges are the inherent part of the new development; so, like all technologies, 5G has also big challenges to deal with. As we see past i.e. development of radio technology, we find very fast growth. Starting from 1G to 5G, the journey is merely of about 40 years old (Considering 1G in 1980s and 5G in 2020s). However, in this journey, the common challenges that we observed are lack of infrastructure, research methodology, and cost.
- Inter-cell Interference − this is one of the major technological issues that need to be solved. There is variations in size of traditional macro cells and concurrent small cells that will lead to interference.
- Efficient Medium Access Control − in a situation, where dense deployment of access points and user terminals are required, the user throughput will be low, latency will be high, and hotspots will not be competent to cellular technology to provide high throughput. It needs to be researched properly to optimize the technology.
- Traffic Management − in comparison to the traditional human to human traffic in cellular networks, a great number of Machine to Machine (M2M) devices in a cell may cause serious system challenges i.e. radio access network (RAN) challenges, which will cause overload and congestion.
- Multiple Services − unlike other radio signal services, 5G would have a huge task to offer services to heterogeneous networks, technologies, and devices operating in different geographic regions. So, the challenge is of standardization to provide dynamic, universal, user-centric, and data-rich wireless services to fulfil the high expectation of people.
- Infrastructure − Researchers are facing technological challenges of standardization and application of 5G services.
- Communication, Navigation, & Sensing − these services largely depend upon the availability of radio spectrum, through which signals are transmitted. Though 5G technology has strong computational power to process the huge volume of data coming from different and distinct sources, but it needs larger infrastructure support.
- Security and Privacy − this is one of the most important challenges that 5G needs to ensure the protection of personal data. 5G will have to define the uncertainties related to security threats including trust, privacy, cyber-security, which are growing across the globe.
- Legislation of Cyberlaw − Cybercrime and other fraud may also increase with the high speed and ubiquitous 5G technology. Therefore, legislation of the Cyberlaw is also an imperative issue, which largely is governmental and political (national as well as international issue) in nature.
1. 5G is more speedy that the previous generation
2. It has a wide range of features such as the future technologies
1. Mobile phones of today are 4G-based devices, 5G-supported devices are very costly
2. It is very costly to use or build
1. International corporations have huge opportunities in fast delivery of products
2. 5G technology has no competitor now
1. It has a high radiation frequency, it is dangerous to human lives
2. It has cybersecurity challenges
5G technology going to be a new mobile revolution in mobile market. Through 5G technology now you can use worldwide cellular phones and this technology also strike the china mobile market and a user being proficient to get access to Germany phone as a local phone. 5G technology has extraordinary data capabilities and has ability to tie together unrestricted call volumes and infinite data broadcast within latest mobile operating system. 5G technology has a bright future because it can handle best technologies and offer priceless handset to their customers. May be in coming days 5G technology takes over the world market. 5G Technologies have an extraordinary capability to support Software and Consultancy. The Router and switch technology used in 5G network providing high connectivity. The 5G technology distributes internet access to nodes within the building and can be deployed with union of wired or wireless network connections. The current trend of 5G technology has a glowing future.
5G technology offer high resolution for crazy cell phone user and bi-directional large bandwidth shaping.
- The advanced billing interfaces of 5G technology makes it more attractive and effective.
- 5G technology also providing subscriber supervision tools for fast action.
- The high quality services of 5G technology based on Policy to avoid error.
- 5G technology is providing large broadcasting of data in Gigabit which supporting almost 65,000 connections.
- 5G technology offer transporter class gateway with unparalleled consistency.
- The traffic statistics by 5G technology makes it more accurate.
- Through remote management offered by 5G technology a user can get better and fast solution.
- The remote diagnostics also a great feature of 5G technology.
- The 5G technology is providing up to 25 Mbps connectivity speed.
- The 5G technology also support virtual private network.
- The new 5G technology will take all delivery service out of business prospect
- The uploading and downloading speed of 5G technology touching the peak.
- The 5G technology network offering enhanced and available connectivity just about the world
Below are some benefits of 5G technology:
- Improved network capacity and throughput with peak data speeds up to 20 Gbps downlinks and up to 10 Gbps uplinks
- Network management of up to 1 M devices per square kilometer, improved device mobility of up to 500 kilometers per hour, over 100x energy efficiency over 4G LTE, and one millisecond network latency times allowing use cases such as cellular V2X and public safety communications
- 5G development is leading to new services and use cases for wireless customers
- Spectrum support for many frequencies, including spectrum bands above 6 GHz, availability of TDD and FDD modes for all bands, and use of licensed and unlicensed bands
- The fifth generation wireless systems, known as 5G, could be up to 100 times faster than 4G and will power the “Internet of Things,” including telemedicine and autonomous vehicles.
CB Insights identified the 20 industries that 5G will impact the most. Here are the top 10:
5G is poised to help manufacturing production operations become more flexible and efficient, while also improving safety and lowering maintenance costs.
2. Energy and utilities
Critical infrastructure like energy and utilities will benefit from 5G technologies, which could create more innovative solutions in energy production, transmission, distribution, and usage, as well as the next wave of smart grid features and efficiency.
Farmers worldwide are using IoT technology to optimize agricultural processes including water management, fertigation, livestock safety, and crop monitoring, the report noted. 5G could enable real-time data collection, allowing farmers to monitor, track, and automate agricultural systems to increase profitability, efficiency, and safety.
More than 100 million Americans made a purchase on their smartphone in 2018, the report noted, and the move to mobile shopping is largely due to the rise of 4G/LTE. The faster speeds 5G will bring will enable new retail experiences like virtual reality (VR) dressing rooms.
5. Financial services
5G will accelerated the digitization of financial institutions, including from internal operations to customer service, the report said. Increased security and speed will allow users to increasingly make transactions instantly on their devices, and make remote tellers a possibility.
6. Media and entertainment
5G will bring about new opportunities in mobile media, mobile advertising, home broadband, and TV, as well as interactive technologies like VR and augmented reality (AR).
In the healthcare industry, 5G could increase efficiencies and revenue, helping health systems create faster, more efficient networks to keep up with the large amounts of data involved. The technology could also enable the use of remote monitoring devices to improve health outcomes.
Transportation systems ranging from public buses to private logistic fleets will gain increased visibility and control thanks to 5G, the report said. 5G will allow improved vehicle-to-vehicle communications, enabling more self-driving car testing. These networks will also help cities gain access to more data around their transportation systems.
The future of AR and VR depends on reliable 5G networks, according to the report. These technologies require a less expensive, wider network with lower latency to continue developing and reaching widespread adoption, as they require massive amounts of data processing.
5G will help insurance agents make more effective decisions, as they will have access to more accurate data, the report said.
The nation that leads in developing and widely deploying 5G technology will have an important first mover advantage, with both economic and national security implications. Chinese national champion Huawei is the current global leader in 5G, and China’s ZTE is also a major player in the industry. Huawei is aggressively pursuing export of its 5G systems to install digital infrastructure around the globe. Huawei is an attractive option to many nations because it is cheaper than its competitors. The products of firms competing with Chinese companies will be more expensive because of unfair subsidies from the Chinese Communist Party, which artificially reduce prices.
Huawei is a tool of state power and a critical asset in China’s global economic and geopolitical competitions and ambitions. Huawei faces competition from Samsung USA and others as an end-to-end producer, and still other companies produce 5G components (such as antennae, chips, and base station architecture) including Ericsson, Nokia, and Qualcomm. These firms are more expensive because they are not the beneficiaries of unfair state subsidies. However, they offer other advantages, including enhanced security, more rigorous training of personnel, protection of intellectual property, and privacy. 5G should be recommended as:
- A national campaign should be launched to inform the public about 5G and its critical importance to the economy and national security.
- The administration needs to accelerate plans for a whole-of-government process to develop a long-term national spectrum strategy and the creation of an ongoing inter-spectrum (midband) for 5G that allows the US to synchronize federal, state, and local policies and procedures to facilitate the rapid and cost-efficient deployment of 5G network equipment.
In conclusion, we’ve learned that 5G technology is not a mere fiction; it has existed. We’ve learned that much about it such as its benefits, challenges, problems, threats and we will conclude that 5G technology is an advanced technology that no civilized country would want to dump it. It has a wide range of features, it supports our future technologies such as IoT, AR/VR and many others. So, 5G technology is an essential advanced technology the world would need and be fully developed worldwide in this New Year, 2020, the year of 5G network development.
 Science ABC, “What Is 5G Technology? How Will It Change The Way You Use The Internet?”, https://www….com
 TutorialsPoint.com, “5G – Challenges”, https://www.tutorialspoint.com/5g/5g_challenges.htm
 RPC Senate, “The Importance of 5G”, https://www.rpc.senate.gov/policy-papers/the-importance-of-5g
 FreeWimaxInfo.com, “What is 5G Technology and Features”, http://freewimaxinfo.com/5g-technology.html
 Futurithmic.com, “Five of the biggest challenges facing 5G”, https://www.futurithmic.com/category/thetechnology/
 WhatsAg.com, “The Advantages and Disadvantages of a 5G Network”, https://whatsag.com/5g/5g_advantages_and_disadvantages.php
 Vesttech.com, “Does 5G Internet Cause More Health Problems?”, https://www.vesttech.com/can-5g-internet-cause-more-health-problems/
 G. Liu and D. Jiang (2016), “5G: Vision and Requirements for Mobile Communication System towards Year 2020”
 CB Insights, “5G will impact these 10 industries the most”, https://www.cbinsights.com/research/5g-technology-disrupting-industries
 Atlantic Council, “Recommendations on 5G and National Security”, https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/issue/security-defense/
Note: This research work has been carried out by Muhammad Auwal Ahmad AKA Mohiddeen Ahmad, the fountainhead of Flowdiary Blog.