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Me Kake Bukata Wajen Gina Kamfani?

Mafi yawancin lokuta da mun ji ance kamfani kawai muna dauka wani babban gini ne da ake zuwa domin gudanar da kasuwanci, kirkira abu ko kula da wani bangare. Eh hakane, amma ba dari-bisa-dari yadda wasu suka dauka ba – wato kafin kamfani ya kasantu sai ya zama wani babban gini da yake da ma’aikata. A yau yadda duniya ta cigaba ko da yaro dan shekaru 10 ne zai iya kirkirar kamfani ba tare da wasu ma’aikata ba ko kuwa wani gini. Kamfani yana kasantuwa ne matukar an tsara masa manufa (mission), hanyoyin samu (sources of income) da kuma tsarukan kasuwancinsa (business plans). Matukar kasuwanci ya kafu da wadannan to hakika zai iya zama kamfani.

Bugu da kari zaka iya kirkirar kamfani ko da ace kai da kanka baka ganin abunda yake gudana, a zamanin nan na yanzu ana ce masa Virtual Startup wato kamfanin yanar gizo. Akwai dubunnai kamfanoni a sassan wurare a duniyar nan a kuma manyan birane kamar America, India da sauransu. A matsayinka na matashi zaka iya kirkirar kamfaninka kaima matukar zaka iya jure wasu matakai wanda zan zayyano a wannan rubutu wanda nayi ma lakabi da “Me Kake Bukata Wajen Gina Kamfani?”

Zaka iya kirkirar kamfani walau na yanar gizo ko kuwa na zahiri. Wato ko da ace yau sana’ar wanki da guga kake yi to zaka iya inganta ta ta hanyar fadada ta domin ta zama kamfani, misali:
i. ka sanya ma sana’arka suna
ii. ka kasance mai yiwa kostomominka hidima ta hanyar samun kyakkyawar mu’amala da su
iii. ka inganta kasuwancinka da gyara masana’antarka da dai sauran abubuwan da ya kamata kayi.

Har ila yau, zaka iya yin haka a wasu kasuwancinka domin inganta su. Kayi sani cewa ana samun har da daukaka a kasuwanci ba wai kudi kawai ba. Wani masani ma cewa yayi “matukar kudi kawai kake samu a kasuwancinka to hakika ba kayi nasara ba”. Wato ka kasance mai farantawa kostomominka rai ta hanyar samun ingantattun kaya a wajenka; misali kada ka sayar musu da kayan da ya rube ko wanda a zahiri bashi da kyau, ka kuma kasance mai sayar da kayanka da araha – wato kada ka tsauwala riba sosai.

Anan zan so nayi bayani kan yadda zaka fara bude kamfanin yanar gizo da kuma na zahiri wanda matasa iri na suke son budewa. Wato wadannan matakai da tsare-tsare su ya kamata mu duba kafin mu bude kamfani, kuma matukar mu ka duba su to hakika zamu iya dacewa ba tare da mun fada hanyar da zata kai mu ga rushewar kamfaninmu ba. Kafin haka zan so muyi dan bayani kan yadda wasu kamfanoni suke rushewa da kuma sanadiyyar hakan, wanda gasu kamar haka:

  1. Rashin tsaruka (business plan)
    Wannan ya zama ruwa dare kan yadda kamfanoni suke rushewa barkatai babu adadi. Hakika nima na taba fadawa wannan tarko a shekarun baya. Wato “business plan” shine wasu tsaruka da ya kamata mai kamfani ya rubuta kafin fa fara bude kasuwanci, yadda zai gudanar da kamfanin da kuma yawan adadin kudin da kamfanin zai ci kafin da kuma bayan ya fara cin moriyarsa. Abunda ake so ka rubuta a littafinka sune:
    i. cikakken bayani da kudiri kan kasuwanci
    ii. kudaden da ake bukata wajen jari da tafiyar da kasuwanci
    iii. yiwuwar kasantuwar kasuwanci, da kuma
    iv. dabarun kasuwanci, ma’aikata da yanayin gunadarwa
  2. Rashin isashshen jari da kudaden shiga (lack of capital and insufficient managing funds)
    Wadannan ma ba karamar illa suke yiwa kamfani ba, wato ko da ace mutum yanada jari to zaiyi wuya ya iya samun isassun kudaden da zai cigaba da tafiyar da kamfaninsa. Idan kuma yayi nasarar samu duka to zai kasance daman can ya tsara “business plan” nashi ne wanda daman ya tanade su duka. Zai fi kyau mutum ya tanadi isassun kudaden da zai iya tafiyar da kamfaninsa ko da ace na wata uku ne.

Ko da anan muka tsaya to hakika zamu fahimci cewa rashin wadannan abubuwa ba karamar illa suke yiwa kamfani ba. Abunda ya kamata muyi shine guje musu ta hanyar shimfida tsare-tsaren kasuwanci kafin a fara.

Wadanne matakai ya kamata a bi kafin gina kamfani?

Da farko dai duk wanda ya fara tunanin gina kamfani to hakika ya san wane irin kamfani zai gina ta hanyar la’akari da ire-iren kamfanoni da kuma wanda zai iya. Bayan wannan sai a duba wasu matakai kamar:
i. yiwuwar gina gundarin kamfani,
ii. yanayin cin moriyarsa da kuma
iii. la’akari mai karfi kan tafiyar da kamfani

Bayan kayi la’akari da wannan, akwai kuma wasu shakikan matakai da duk wani kamfani yake bi kafin ginuwa wadannan sune:

Na farko: SWOT Analysis

SWOT Analysis na nufin bincike domin gano nakasu, dama, barazana da kuma hasashen yanayin karfin da kamfani zai iya samu bayan ya kasantu. SWOT na nufin “Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat” na kamfani.
Anan zaka rubuta duk wadannan abubuwa da zaka iya fuskanta a kamfaninka. Misali, ka rubuta:
Strength: yanayin karfin da zamfanin zai iya samu
Weakness: nakasun kamfanin. Ka kwatanta shi da sauran kamfanoni; idan ka kaddamar da shi zai iya gwagwarmaya da sauran kamfanoni? Shin wane nakasu ne da naka kamfanin tunda kai ne sabon budewa?
Opportunity: damar da kamfanin zai samu kamar kasancewarsa sabon budewa a yankin da kake, shin zai samu karbuwa?
Threat: barazanar da zai iya fuskanta daga wuri ko abokan kasuwanci da sauransu.

Bayan kayi wadannan sai kayi la’akari da kyau wato “analysis” din sa’annan ka kwatanta yanayin karfin rinjaya (percentage) na bude kamfanin; shin bude sa shine ya rinjayi rashin bude sa ko ko yaya abun zai kasance?

Na biyu: Preliminary Investigation

Wannan ma bincike ne wanda ake yinsa kafin a gina kamfani. Wannan binciken ya kunshi abubuwa kamar haka:

i. la’akari da matsalolin da kamfani kan iya fuskanta da kuma wasu kamfanonin

ii. zayyana manufa da kudurin kamfani

iii. neman shawarwari daga ma’abota sani, ‘yan kasuwa, ma’abota wannan harkar kamar wadanda suke saya da sayarwa da dai sauransu. Yana da kyau ka nemi shawarwari daga gare su domin jin yadda kasuwancin yake ko da ace kuwa kai ma ka sani, saboda watakila ka iya samun bayanai masu muhimmanci a wajensu wadanda zasu taimaka maka domin gina naka.

iv. shigar da sakamakon bincikenka a littafi da kuma yin kyakkyawan la’akari da su

v. lokaci, kudi, mu’amala da kostomomi

vi. neman bayani kan dalilan da yasa wasu kamfanoni irin naka suka rushe, da kuma dalilan da yasa wasu kamfanonin irin naka suka shahara.

Wadannan sune a takaice abubuwan da mutum ya kamata yayi bincike akai kafin ya gina kamfani a karkashin sashe na biyu wato Preliminary Investigation

Na uku: Feasibility Study

Kamar yadda yake a sama cewa ana binciko nakasu, dama da kuma yanayin karbuwar kamfani, to haka ana yin “feasibility study” ma domin la’akari da tabbatar da yiwuwar gina kamfani. Muhimman abubuwa guda uku da ake karanta da kuma dubawa a wannan fanni sune:

  1. Operational feasibility – wannan na nufin yiwuwar gudanar da kamfani; shin kai da kanka zaka iya gudanar da kamfanin ko kuwa ma’aikata zaka dauka? Sannan idan ma’aikata ne nawa zaka biya su? Idan kuma kai da kanka ne shin kanada lokacin yin hakan? Sannan wurin da zaka gina kamfaninka shin akwai bukatarsa?
  2. Technical feasibility – wannan ya shafi yiwuwar fasaha. Idan kamfanin yanar gizo ne kake son ginawa da farko abunda zakayi anan shine tabbatar da cewa zaka iya rike bangarorin fasaha “technical issues” ko ma’aikatanka. Misali idan shafin yanar gizo ne, to waye zai gina? Waye zai rika kula da shi?
  3. Economic feasibility – wannan ma ya dukufa ne wajen la’akari da yiwuwa ta banbare tattalin arziki. Shin ka tanadi jari da kudaden shiga? Kamar nawa ka tanada kuma nawa kake ganin gina kamfanin zai ci da kuma kudaden gudanarwa.

Bayan an fasalta wadannan abubuwa duka dangane da kamfani, sai kuma la’akari a kiyasce dangane da yadda yiwuwar gina shi – wato hakan zai yiwu ba tare da matsala ba ko kuwa akwai matsala, sannan a duba yanayin rinjaya (percentage) kafin daukar mataki. Misali yanayin rinjayar yiwuwa (possibility) yafi na rashin yiwuwa (impossibility) da kamar: possibility 65%, impossibility: 35%, to anan yiwuwar ya rinjayi rashinsa wanda a zahirin sakamako shine gina kamfanin. Amma matukar aka samu akasin haka da hujjoji maau karfi to a zahiri rashij gina kamfanin shine zai fi, sai dai kuma a fahimtar wasu na kasada – “taking risk” !

Hakika rashin daukar wadannan matakai ba karamar illa yake janyowa kamfani ba wajen durkushewarsa saboda daman ba a tsara shi bisa hanyoyin da suka dace ba. Matukar mun kasance masu duba da wadannan matakai to babu shakka zamu iya kubuta daga yawan faduwa da durkushewa wanda kowa yake gujewa.

Fatan alkhairi da samun nasara mai dorewa!

Mohiddeen Ahmad

I am Muhammad Auwal Ahmad (Mohiddeen), a technologist and a writer. I Specifically write on sciences and modern technology

9 Comments

  1. Assalamu alaikum, Barka da warhaka, gaskiya, nayi farincikin had’uwa da wannan kasida mai mutukar fa’ida, hakika Ina da shirin bude kamfani na yanar gizo ta bangaren kati data sauransu, amman gaskiya yanzu tunanina ya canza.

    Wannan kasida dana karanta, tasa zan koma baya domin samarwa da kaina mafita. Da tattaunawa da masu yin harkar ko da masu kula da ita.

    Nagode matuka.

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