0

Mu Fahimci Fasahohin Zamani (3)

Cigaba…

3. Quantum Computers

Fasaha ta gaba da ya kamata mu sani itace quantum computer. Wannan kai katse ba zamu iya ce mata fasaha ba, sai dai “cigaba a tarihin computer”. Wato a tarihin gina computer (generation of computer) ya kasance tun daga generation na farko (1940) lokacin da ake amfani da vacuum tube, generation na biyu akayi amfani da transistors, na uku akayi amfani da integrated circuit, na hudu wanda muke a yanzu muke amfani da microprocessor, na biyar wanda muka fara amfani da shi kuma har zuwa nan gaba shine artificial intelligence sai kuma na shida na gaba wanda duniya take tunanin cewa shine zai zama quantum computers wanda dukkaninsu suna aiki ne wajen processing din data.

Wato a koda wane lokaci ana samun cigaba wajen gina computers da zasu dace da zamani, wadanda zasu iya kawo tsaruka kala-kala domin biyawa mutum bukatunsa cikin sauki. A irin wannan hali yasa fasahar AI ta shigo cikin computer domin saukakawa wajen gudanar da ayyuka. To yanzu kuma computers din da suke shirin kasantuwa a duniya sune quantum computers a matsayin sixth generation of computer.

Wadanne irin na’urori ne quantum computers?


Wato domin mu fahimci menene “quantum computer” dole sai mun koma “quantum physics”, ko kuma kace “quantum mechanics”, wanda a takaice shine wani bangare na kimiyya wanda yake la’akari da karantar asali, wanzuwa, da nau’i na “smallest particles of matter” da karfinsu (energy) da suka hadu suka samar da atom. Wannan fanni ne da yake da sarkakiya matukar gaske. Fanni ne da ya hada da chemistry, modern physics, da kuma wani fanni na cosmology domin gane hakikanin da kuma asalin wannan “tiniest ball of matter” din da tayi sanadiyyar samuwar/wanzuwar kaunu (idan muka koma nazariyyar Big Bang).

Fannin quantum physics yana dealing da karantar kananun abubuwa wadanda zamu iya ce musu particles of matter da karfin su (energy) domin samun ilimin da za’a iya amfani da su wa fannoninmu na rayuwar yau da kullum. Misali mu dauki yadda kankantar zirin haske yake (photon) musamman na x-ray ta yadda yake iya ratsa abu (body penetration) domin hasken ya shiga ya binciko wani abu. Ta dalilin haka a yau akan iya amfani da camera, remote control.. ko kuma in general ince electromagnetic waves wanda ya ta’allaka ga particles of matter din ne. Sannan a yau duniya ta cigaba da takan ya amfani da laser light a matsayin makami. Shekarun baya akwai wata kasa da tayi wani mahaukacin laser weapon da yake ratsa abu ya fasa shi duk girmansa, yana tafiya kuma uncontrollably. Irin wannan ya nuna a yau muna bukatar ilimin quantum physics domin sanin yadda wadannan particles din da suka samar da atom din shi kansa.

To kamar yadda muka sani a yanzu classical computers namu suna storing data da 0’s and 1’s, wanda hakan ya zama cewa abu biyu ne kawai computer; YES or NO, TRUE or FALSE, ON or OFF, duk da hakan ba karamin cigaba bane amma an samu nakasu wajen processing abu ta yadda take amfani da “sequential paradigm” a maimakon “synchronization” duk da la’akari da irin saurin (speed) din da ta samu a yau amma hakan bai sa ta kai supercomputer ba. Wato computer a yanzu tana processing abubuwa ne daya bayan daya (sequantially) daga wannan step din zuwa next, sai dai saboda yanayin saurinta yasa ba’a cika ganewa ba sai kaga kamar a kai daya takeyin komai. To quantum computer kuma zatayi processing data a kai daya, zatayi storing din data da “quantum bits” (qubits) ne (particles of matter) wanda wasu suna tsammanin zata kore amfani da 0’s and 1’s ne amma kuma kai tsaye ba haka bane. Zatayi aiki da smallest particles of matter wajen storing data din, amma sai dai wani abu mafi muhimmanci shine samun “neutral body” da zatayi wanda ake kira superposition. Shi wannan zai kasance ne a tsakanin 0 and 1 ta yadda zai zama na uku (neutral body) wajen processing data domin kawo sauki wa saurin computer da kuma yin aiki a kai daya (simultaneously).

Akwai wasu muhimman abubuwa da ya kamata mu sani game da quantum computers wadanda suka hada da:

  1. Quantum computers za sufi classical computers namu sauri (speed) sau sama da miliyoyi wanda amfaninsu zai kasance wa kamfanoni ne kamar finance industry, military, pharmaceuticals da sauransu.
  2. Abu na biyu ga wadannan computers din bayan speed shine warware matsala cikin kankanin lokaci da inda a classical computer ne ta kan iya daukarta shekaru da dama kamar mathematical problems.
  3. Abu na uku shine processing large amount of data cikin sauki. A yau duniyar internet a cike take da data kuma kullum karuwa sukeyi, samun saukin yadda za’a adana bayanan nan su iya kasance cikin karamin ma’adana kamar yanzu memory card yakan iya zama 32GB, 50GB… wanda a da girman data storage 1MB ya kai girman computer desktop, to samun sauki a wannan sha’ani shine kokarin da bangaren Big Data yake yi. Quantum computer zata taimaka matuka a bangaren Big Data domin processing, manipulating din large amounts of data cikin kankanin lokaci.
  4. Na hudu shine bangaren tsaro. Wato bypass decryption din encrypted data a quantum computer abu ne da zaiyi matukar wahala. Fannin cryptology shine karantar yadda za’ayi breaking din tsaron na’ura da kuma data. Cryptologists da suka kware a wannan fannin sukan iya hada tsaro kuma suyi breaking din wani tsaron. Ta kan iya yiwuwa quantum computer tazo da sabon tsarin da hatta cryptologists din sai sunsha matukar wahala kafin su gano yadda zasuyi breaking tsaronta, sai dai kuma ba wani tsaro ne da ita ba a hannun kwarin quantum physics da suka san lagon tsaro.

A yanzu kamfanin IBM shine wanda yayi fice wajen sanar da cewa yana samun nasarar kirkira quantum computer duk da ma kamfanin Google ya sanar da cewa ya gina quantum computer da tafi duk wata computer ta yanzu a kamfanin a sauri sau sama da miliyan dari. Sauran kamfanonin akwai Microsoft, Alibaba, HP, Toshiba da sauransu.

Sai mun hadu a kashi na gaba…

Madogara:
Wikipedia.org
Cnet.com
Livescience.com
Bloomberg.com
Thoughtco.com
IBM.com
BernardMarr.com

Mohiddeen Ahmad
30th May, 2020.

Mohiddeen Ahmad

I am Muhammad Auwal Ahmad (Mohiddeen), a technologist and a writer. I Specifically write on sciences and modern technology. Hit my about page to learn more about me.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *