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Mu Fahimci Fasahohin Zamani (1)

A matsayinmu na wadanda suke rayuwa a wannan zamani na “information age” ya kamata mu san sababbin fasahohin da suke tashe a yanzu da kuma inda ake amfani da su da makamantansu. Akwai fasahohi da dama wadanda suka jima suna existing amma anan da dama daga cikinmu bamu sansu ba, saboda dama gwamnatin kasar tamu ba bawa computer sciences da technology muhimmanci take ba bale ma ayi tunanin kawo wani course domin amfanuwar jama’a. A yau a Nigeria bana tunanin akwai wani course na wadannan banagrori da suka wuce computer engineering, computer science, information technology da cyber security su din ma a zahirin gaskiya ba wani samun ingantaccen ilimi ake a kansu ba koda a jami’a ne.

A yau, hasashe ya nuna technology shine zai zama lamba daya na tattalin arziki a duniya duk da ma ya zama a wasu kasashen da suka cigaba. Technology ya shiga kowane field a duniya ta yadda ya zama karfen kafa a inda yake bawa taimako ta bangarori da dama. Da ace za’a dauke technology a duniya da yanzu sai dai mu koma karni na 10 ko 11 saboda tsantsar ci bayan da za’a samu a inda za’ayi asarar sama da rabi na dukiyar duniya gaba daya. Technology ya zama ruwan dare a inda ya shahara a dukkanin fanni kuma daman da yake yana tafiya da modern sciences sai ya zamanto cewa yana kutsa kowane sashe ba kakkautawa.

Dan haka akwai bukatar mu san wadanne fasahohi ne suke tashe a duniya, menene aikinsu, yaya suke, sa’annan wane irin hasashe ne akeyi a kansu. A irin wannan ankararwar ce wani yakan samu wata fasahar da tayi masa sai ya fadada bincike akai, daga karshe ma ya fada cikinta tsundum a hankali a hankali kuwa har ya zama gwani.

Daga cikin fasahohin zamani wadanda suke tashe a yanzu a duniya, kuma ya kamata ace mun san su akwai:

1. Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Wannan fasaha ta kwan biyu a duniya saboda ta samo asali ne tun a 1950’s idan muka danganta ta da ubanta wato John McCharthy, sai dai bata fara wanzuwa ta zama mai amfani da kuma tafiya da zamani ba sai a karni na 21. Wannan fasaha ta ta’allaka ne ga kirkirar wasu algorithms da models wadanda zasu iya bawa computer damar yin wasu abubuwa kamar dan Adam; misali kamar tunani, yanke shawara, nazari, da sauran yadda dan Adam zai fahimci abu. Kamar yadda yazo a tsare, fasahar AI itace 5th generation na na tarihin computer domin tafiya da zamani wajen kirkirar computers masu kama da mutane.

Wannan fasaha ta shiga bangarori da dama wadanda suka hada da cognitive psychology da brain science; domin sanin yadda kwakwalwa take mu’amala da gangar jiki da zuciya, mathematics; domin gina fikirar lissafi, computer science; domin gina algorithms da implementing dinsu a programming languages; da kuma statistics domin fahimtar bayanai da yadda computer zatayi ta’ammulli da su. Kudirin wannan fasaha na cewa anaso a bawa na’ura fikira, basira da kuma hankali irin na dan Adam abu ne wanda yake bukatar daukan tsawon lokaci ana nazari da kuma bincike a kansa.

Sai dai kuma hatta wasu wadanda suke a field din technology sunyi wa fasahar AI gurguwar fahimta a inda suke tsammani cewa AI wata na’ura ce mai zaman kanta. A’a bayani mafi dacewa shine fasaha ce kawai, a saukake mu ce “set of algorithms” ne wadanda zasuyi ruwa-da-tsaki wajen ganin sun aiwatar da abunda akeso suyi a cikin na’ura wanda shine kwaikwayon fikirar dan Adam. Misali mutane suna dauka ‘robot’ shine misalin AI, eh hakane wannan misali ne, amma fa akwai robots din da basuda fasahar AI, kamar yadda akwai mutanen da suka rasa ‘common sense’, amma takan iya yiwuwa sunada ‘decision-making ability’. Anan mun fahimci kenan fasahar AI tarin algorithms ne wadanda ake sarrafa su domin aiki a cikin na’ura. Misali zaka iya kiran AI expert domin ya sawa motarka wata fasaha a cikin fasahohin AI ta yadda zata rinka yin wasu abubuwa na musamman misali tuka kanta, kula/tsare da kanta da sauransu.

Bayan haka shi kansa AI din babban fage ne na fasaha wanda ya kunshi sashina da dama, kamar su:
i. Natural Language Processing (NLP) – wannan fasahar ta AI tana dealing da bawa computer wata kebabbiyar fikirar da zata rinka fahimtar yarukan dan Adam kamar Hausa, Kanuri, English, Fulani, Spanish, Kare-kare dss. Tunda mun sani sarai cewa computer ita kanta bata iya gane turanci har sai an tsara ta akansa an bata damar gane shi, to yanzu so ake a bata damar da zata iya fahimtar sauran yarukan dan Adam kamar yadda mutum zai koya a cikin al’umma. Kaga wannan ni’ima ce da Allah ya bawa dan Adam kai tsaye, to yanzu sai akeso a kwaikwaye ta a bawa computer ma. Alhamdulillah na san wani dan Arewa da yake karantar wannan course din (NLP) a M.Sc nashi a kasar waje, wannan cigaba ne sosai.

ii. Pattern Recognition – wannan kuma tana dealing da bawa computer damar da zata iya tuna abu (recognition) kamar hoto, zane, sa hannu, fuska, sauti ko murya ko wani abu na mutum ta yadda zata iya tunawa kuma ta gane na wane ne. Kamar yanzu idan na sa hannu a littafi sai na nuna mata nace wannan sa hannu na ne, kada ki manta. To bayan kwana biyu idan nayi irin wannan sa hannun zata iya ganewa cewa ni nayi. Ko kuma idan taga hoto na a wani wajen ko jin murya ta ta tace wannan wane ne da sauransu. A karkashin wannan sashe akwai computer vision – inda computer zata gane hoto/video ta yadda zata iya gani kamar mutum, voice recognition – gane/tuna murya ko sauti, da kuma pattern recognition din kansa wanda ya hada da gane sa hannu, rubutu ko wani abu na dan Adam.

iii. Machine Learning/Deep Learning – wato machine learning (ML) wata fasaha ce karkashin babban fage na AI da take kokarin bawa computer wata dama da computer ita da kanta zata iya koyan abu batare da sai an koya mata ko an tsara mata yadda zatayi ba. Kamar yadda mutum yake koyan abu ko da ba’a sa shi ba, to haka computer zata koyi abu. Kamar kawai tayi la’akari da cewa kana tashi kullum da karshen dare kanayin safur a watan Ramadan. To idan ta fahimci wannan ko da ace wani azumi yazo (zatayi la’akari da tsawon shekarun da kayi kana saita alarm) kuma baka saita alarm din ba, to ita da kanta zata saita ta tashe ka saboda ta koya cewa ai kana tashi, to bari ta taimaka maka, watakila ka manta ne.

Wannan fasaha ta ML a hakikanin gaskiya tana tashe a duniya kwarai, da kuma yar uwarta Deep Learning (DL) wacce suke kama sai dai kuma ita DL tana dealing ne da neural networks wato dai kamar yadda asalin neurons na kwakwalwar mutum yake aiki. Ana ikirarin cewa zatayi aiki tsab kusan kamar yadda kwakwalwar mutum takeyi ta bangaren abubuwa kamar tunani, nazari, shauki, da kuma hankalin sanin daidaiton abu ko rashinsa (conscience)

Sannan ko ni ML yana daga cikin research interests dina kuma a yanzu haka cikin ikon Allah ina kan developing da implementing din algorithm dina wanda na kirkiro daga formula ta ta discrete analysis. Alhamdulillah!

Da sauransu… zamu iya fadada bincike mu iya cin karo da sauran fasahohin AI da abunda zai iya yi.

Zamu iya gina system sa’annan mu sanya mata fasahar AI kamar software, device ko wani machine. Misali yanzu haka anan Facebook din da muke yana amfani da fasahar AI, a cikin wayoyinmu akwai, a Google, Twitter, Amazon, Siri, games… yawancin wurare a internet da kamfanoni da dama suna amfani da wannan fasaha. Yanzu a US har ana cewa IT company da baya amfani da fasahar AI to bai kamata a sanya shi a jerin kamfanonin da suka ci gaba ba saboda muhimmancin fasahar da yadda take kawo sauki a rayuwarmu ta yau da kullum.

Wannan field na AI yanada girman gaske ga kuma fadi, zamu iya saninsa matukar muka fadada bincike sosai domin fahimtarsa da kuma fadawa cikinsa don kada barinmu da akayi a baya din yayi yawa saboda ko ni nakai kusan shekaru uku da fara bincike akansa da yadda zamu iya gina shi yayi mana amfani a kasarmu. Akwai wasu muhimman bayanai da ya kamata mu sani akan wannan fasaha, zan kara yin rubutu kan “muhimman bayani akan AI” insha Allah zuwa nan gaba dudda ma bazai kasance a karkashin wannan topic din ba.

Sai mun hadu a kashi na gaba…

Mohiddeen Ahmad
16th May, 2020.

Mohiddeen Ahmad

I am Muhammad Auwal Ahmad (Mohiddeen), a technologist and a writer. I Specifically write on sciences and modern technology. Hit my about page to learn more about me.

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