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Su Waye Masana Kimiyyar Musulunci? (3)

Cigaba…

6 Al-Zahrawi (Abucasis)

Duk wani ilimi da duniyar likitanci take takama da shi a yau na fida (operation) to ya samo asali ne daga babban masanin likitancin nan al-Zahrawi. Dan asalin kasar Andalus ne (Spain) kuma cikakken sunansa Abul Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbad al-Zahrawi, wanda yayi rayuwa a karni na goma (10th century). Shine mutum na farko da ya fara kirkiro da kayan fida (surgical instrument) inda yayi bayanin sama da guda dari biyu a cikin littafinsa al-Tathrif wanda ya rubuta domin ya zama encyclopedia ta magani da sauran abubuwan da ake bukata wajen likitanci. Shine kwararren masanin likitancin da yake da alhakin:
i. gano inheritance of hemophilia wato cewa hemophilia cuta ce da ake gadonta
ii. kirkirar inhalation anesthesia
iii. kirkirar lithotrite
iv. shine farkon likitan da ya fara yin tiyatar ciwon kan “migraine”
v. fara yin bayani akan treatment of wart da kuma Kocher’s method
vi. shine likitan da ya fara yin treatment of hydrocephalus
vii. yayi bayani kan yin tiyatar ido, kunne da makokwaro duk a cikin littafin nasa

7 Al-Jazari

Cikakken sunansa Ismail al-Jazari yayi rayuwa a karni na goma sha uku (13th century) sannan yayi karatunsa a bangaren engineering, mathematics da kuma physics sa’annan babban masani ne a wadannan bangarori. Wasu suna masa kirari da “father of automation” har ma da “father of robotics” saboda fikirarsa ta kirkirar fasahar yi-da-kanka (automatic machine) da kirkirar wasu dabaru na yadda mutum zai iya wanke hannunsa a wajen ruwa mai gudana, ka dauki misali da shyer. Sannan shi ke da alhakin fara kirkiro fasahar agogo. Cikin ayyukansa akwai:
i. kirkirar blood measurement device
ii. kirkirar “crankshaft”, “crank-slider”, “candle clock”, da kuma “camshaft”
iii. kirkirar Programmable automation
iv. rubuta littafin “The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices”

8 Al-kindi

Abu Yusuf Yaqub Ibn Ishaq Al-kindi ma babban masanin kimiyya ne wanda ya rayu a kasar Iraq. Kwararre ne a bangaren mathematics, astronomy, optics, cryptography da kuma medicine. Yan gudummawa nesa-ba-kusa ba a dukkanin wadannan bangarori. An ruwaito cewa shine mutum na farko da ya fara yin rubuce-rubuce kan sahihancin kimiyyar gani (optics). Ya kuma yi hidima sosai a mathematics inda ya warware sarkakiya a geometry, algebra da sauransu da kuma cryptography wato yadda ake boye rubutu (a fassararmu ta yanzu), da kuma cryptoanalysis (ilimin baje, warware boyayyun bayanai) wanda har yanzu har gobe ana amfani da hikimominsa a bangarenmu na computer. Yayi bayani sosai cikin wata script dinsa “Deciphering the cryptographic messages” kan yadda ake warware boyayyun bayanai ta hanyar amfani da wasu dabaru na lissafi da nazari. Ya bada gudummawa sosai a fannoni daban-daban kamar chemistry, physics, medicine, astronomy, pharmacology, psychology da sauransu. Cikin rubuce-rubucensa sun hada da “The Book of Chemistry of Perfume and Distillations”, “On the Use of the Indian Numerals”, “Treatise on the Efficient Cause on the Flow and Ebb”, “The Book of the Judgement of the Stars”, “On the Stellar Rays”, “The Choices of Days” da sauransu.

9 Al-Karaji

Sunansa Abu-Bakr Muhammad Ibn Alhassan al-Karaji kuma haife shi a garin Karaj na birnin Iran, ya kuma yi rayuwarsa a karni na goma (10th century). Fitacce ne ta bangaren ilimin mathematics da engineering. Shine masanin da ya fara yin bayanin cewa duniyar earth kamar tamaula (ball) take sannan tana tsakiyar kaunu, shi ya fara yin bayanin haka a cikin littafinsa “Extraction of Hidden Waters” sama da shekaru dari hudu kafin daga bisani Galileo da Kepler suka gano hakan. Kadan daga cikin ayyukansa sun hada da kirkirar Pascal’s triangle – Al-karaji ne ya fara yin fasalin wannan fikira ta lissafi da kuma gano lissafin binomial theorem.

10 Fatima al-Fihri

Wannan ba masaniyar kimiyya bace amma ta kafa tarihin da ba za’a taba mantawa dashi ba har duniya ta nade. Itace ta fara gina jami’a a duniya a shekarar 859 a kasar Morocco. Jami’ar mai suna University of al-Qarawiyyun har yanzu tana nan kuma tana aiki. Wannan namijin kokari da Malama Fatima tayi wajen kawo jami’a kasarta ba abun mantawa bane. A yau duniya tanada jami’o’i sama da dubu dari, kaga kenan duk daga wajenta akayi koyi. Duk wani ilimi da ake tunkaho dashi yau a duniya to jami’a ake kai shi a baje shi anan. Tabbas wannan itace mace-mutum. Da ace matanmu na yanzu zasu rinka yin kokarin ganin sun kawo mana cigaba ko kadan ne ta bangaren kimiyya da fasaha da lamari ya chanja, amma sai dai iya kashe murya da sanin hanyar shoprite.

Wasu daga cikin masana kimiyyar musulunci da suka yiwa kimiyyar zamani namijin wajen ganin an gina ta sun hada da:

11 Ibn Rushd – fannoninsa sun hada da medicine, astronomy, physics da theology da kuma philosophy.

12 Al-Razi – ya bada gudummawa sosai a bangaren medicine, psychology da psychotheraphy. Shine ya fara yin bayani kan cutar kyanda da ciwon agana da gano sinadarin ethanol, nitruc acid da kuma bayani kan amfani da fetir da kalanzir da ware su daga danyen mai.

13 Thabit Ibn Qurra – masanin mathematics, mechanics, astrology da kuma astronony. Ya bada gudummawa sosai a algebra da geometry. Ya kuma yi babban aiki a bangaren lissafin lambobi inda aka sanyawa wani aikinsa suna Thabit Numbers

14 Ibn al-Nafees – masanin da ya fara yin bayani kan metabolism, fannoninsa sun hada da medicine, biology, anatomy, physiology da surgery.

Sauran akwai su Al-Khazin, al-Bhalki, Banu Musa, al-Farisi, Harawi Muwaffa, Ibn Khordadbeh, al-khazini, Tusi, Ibn Abbas, Bin Musa, Tabari, Al-farisi, al-kashi, Ibn Zuhr… Da sauransu wanda yawansu ya wuce misali. Hakika dukkaninsu sun bada gudummawa mai tarin yawa a duniyar kimiyya da ma fasaha baki daya.
Abun burgewa anan shine dukkaninsu basu kasance masu aibata yan uwansu ba ko da a cikin littatafansu sai dai su yi nazari da bayani cikakke kan YADDA DUNIYA ZA TA CIGABA. Wadannan kadan kenan daga cikin wadanda sukayi ruwa-da-tsaki a fannin kimiyya da fasaha, ina ko wadanda sukayi fice ta sauran bangarorin. Sannan kaso 95% a cikin 100 sun kasance masana falsafa ne, amma falsafarsu bata kai su ga rushe addini ba sai daidaiku daga cikinsu.
Abun bakin cikin shine sace da handame wadannan gudummawa da suka bawa duniyar kimiyya ne da kasashen yamma sukayi.

Allah ya taimake mu ya bamu sa’a, amen.

Madogara:
1001Inventions.com
Wikipedia.org
IranReview.org
WelcomeToIran.com
MuslimHeritage.com


Mohiddeen Ahmad

6th May, 2020

Mohiddeen Ahmad

I am Muhammad Auwal Ahmad (Mohiddeen), a technologist and a writer. I Specifically write on sciences and modern technology. Hit my about page to learn more about me.

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