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Su Waye Masana Kimiyyar Musulunci? (2)

Cigaba…

Masana kimiyyar musulunci, kamar yadda mu kayi bayani a baya sun kasance masana kimiyya ne wadanda suka dukufa wajen bincike a fannin kimiyya domin taimakon sashen wajen gina ita kimiyyar kanta. A wannan rubutun da na gaba zan kawo tarihin wadannan manyan masana da kuma gudummawar da suka bayar wajen gina kimiyyar zamani.

1 Abi Sina (Avicenna)

Asalin sunansa Abu Ali Ibn Muhammad Musa Abu Sina, an haife shi a garin Afshana na kasar Farisa kusa da garin Bukhara (garin babban malamin hadisin nan Muhammad al-Bukhari), kuma ya tashi a garin Bukhara domin anan yayi karatunsa na addini da kuma koyon ilimin magani. Daga nan ya bazama a wannan yanki nasu yana neman ilimin magani. Abu Sina ya rubuta littatafai da dama wadanda suka taimakawa duniyar kimiyya sosai, cikinsu akwai “The Canon of Medicine” (wanda shine bakandaminsa kuma mashahuri a duniya baki daya saboda tarin iliman da yake cikinsa), sai “The Book of Healing” da dai sauransu. A yau babu wata kasa ta take buga kirji wajen ilimin magani ba tare da kawo madogara da Ibn Sina ba.

2 Jabir Ibn Hayyan (Geber)

A lokacin da nake aji biyu na makarantar sakandare na fara jin wannan suna – Jabir Ibn Hayyan. Turawa suna masa kirari da “The father of chemistry” wato uban kimiyyar chemistry domin irin namijin kokarin da yayi wajen gina kimiyyar chemistry ta zamani. Nasan a yau da zaran an ambaci chemistry sai dai ka tuno da Charles, Boyles, Galileo ko Dalton, amma mafi yawan lokuta ana mantawa da Ibn Hayyan bayan kuma shine gundarin gina kimiyyar. Jabir Ibn Hayyan asalinsa dan kasar Farisa ne, ance mahaifinsa babban masanin magani ne wanda yayi kaura zuwa kasar Yemen. Sannan ruwayoyi da dama sun nuna cewa Ibn Hayyan dalibi ne ga jikan Manzon Allah (SAW) kuma imami na shida wato Ja’afar Al-Sadiq. Allah ya bamu albarkacinsu. Cikin gudummawar da Ibn Hayyan ya bawa kimiyya sun hada da:
i. Shine masanin kimiyyar da ya fara hada sinadarin “sulfuric acid”, “cinnabar”, da “hydrochloric acid”
ii. shine masanin da ya gano hada sinadaran “acid” da “base” (acid-base theory)
iii. ya kuma yi rubuce-rubucen scripts sama da dubu uku (3,000)
iv. rubuta littatafin “The Book of Assemblage”
v. ta dalilinsa aka fara amfani da kalmar “alkali” a kimiyyar sinadarai
vi. kawo sabbin apparatus sama da guda 20
vii. gano cewa hada hydrochloric acid da nitric acid zai samar da wani sinadarin da za’a iya amfani dashi wajen narkar da zinare
…da sauran manyan ayyukansa

3 Al-kwarizmi (Algorithm/Algebra)

Muhammad Ibn Musa Al-kwarizmi wanda aka fi sani a yammaci da Algebra shine gundarin gina abun nan namu na computer da muke ce masa algorithm – wato hanya daki-daki domin kawo karshen wato sarkakiya a saukake. Algorithm ba zai taba kasantuwa ba matukar babu Al-kwarizmi, domin shine ya kawo wannan tsari da kuma bada gudummawa mai tarin yawa a fannin ilimin mathematics wacce a yau tayi sanadiyyar da muma muka samu akanmu a duniyar computer. Cikin nasarorin da Muhammad Al-kwarizmi ya bawa kimiyya sun hada da:
i. Shine masanin da ya kirkiri bangaren lissafi na Algebra a cikin littafinsa “Ilm al-jabr wal-mukabala”
ii. Shine uban algorithm
iii. Kasancewarsa masanin da yayi ruwa-da-tsaki wajen warware sarkakiyar “linear and quadratic equations” da kuma warware quadratic equation din ta hanyar amfani da wata hanya “completing the square method” da ya kawo
iv. babban aikinsa a lissafin sine quadrant

4 Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen)

Cikakken sunansa Hassan Ibn al-Haytham babban masani ne a bangaren kimiyyar physics bangaren gani (optics), mathematics da kuma astronomy. An haife shi a garin Basra na kasar Iraq kuma yayi rayuwarsa a (9th century). Ibn al-Haytham shine masani na farko da ya fara yin bayani cewa gani (vision) yana aukuwa ne matukar haske ya daki abu sa’annan ya dawo ga ido, ka dauki misalin majigi (projector) wanda haskensa yake dukan jikin allo domin ya nuna wani hoto. Ibn al-Haytham bai tsaya nan ba, shine makasudin wanzuwar camera a wannan duniyar tamu. Yayi bayani cikakku a cikin shahararren littafinsa “The Book of Optics” wanda yau ya taimaka wajen daukan hoto, video duk ta hanyar amfani da camera. Shine mutum na farko da ya fara kirkirar pinhole camera. Har ila yau, akwai wata sarkakiya ta lissafi da wannan babban masanin yaso yayi bayaninta anace mata Alhazen’s problem, amma tun daga wancen zamaninsa karni na tara ba’a samu wanda ya warware ta ba sai Von Nemann a karni na ashirin a shekakar 1997.
Cikin gudummawar da Ibn al-Haytham ya bawa kimiyya akwai:
i. kirkirar pinhole camera
ii. samar da saukakkar hanyar warware lissafin Cauchy-Riemann Integral
iii. samar da Law of cotangents
iv. samar da Ruffini-Horner Algorithm
v. fara gano Wilson’s theorem
vi. bayani kan glass magnification da convex lens
vii. fadada lissafin proof by contradiction
viii. nazari da kawo kimiyyar optic chiasm
v… ya rubuta littatafai sama da 96
…da sauransu

5 Abbas Ibn Firnas

Abbas Ibn Firnas mutumin kasar Andalus ne (Spain) wanda ya shahara wajen fikirarsa ta fara kirkirar abunda zai tashi sama (flying machine) wanda yau yayi sanadiyyar kirkirar jirgin sama. Yayi rayuwarsa a karni na tara (9th century). Wasu ruwayoyin sukace Ibn Firnas yana hada flying machine din ya hau kansa yana kokarin tashi, har wani lokacin ma yana tashi. Shi ya fara gano yadda za’a iya kirkirar gilashi ta hanyar amfani da duwatsu. Har abada kuwa duniya bazata taba mantawa da Ibn Firnas ba saboda namijin kokarinsa a wadannan bangarori.

Mu hadu a kashi na uku…
Mohiddeen Ahmad

Mohiddeen Ahmad

I am Muhammad Auwal Ahmad (Mohiddeen), a technologist and a writer. I Specifically write on sciences and modern technology. Hit my about page to learn more about me.

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